Hot Chamber Die Casting Process (Explained with Pros & Cons)

What is Hot Chamber Die Casting Process?
Hot chamber die casting process is a type of manufacturing process in which the supply of molten metal is attached to the die casting machine and it is an integral part of the casting apparatus.

Hot chamber die casting process (Steps)

Steps of hot chamber die casting process are mentioned below.

  • The hot chamber die casting process uses a pressure to force the molten metal into the mold cavity known as die.
  • The major surface details obtained on the castings are because of the pressure applied to the molten metal.
hot chamber die casting process
  • In hot chamber die casting, the supply of hot metal is attached to the die casting machine and this forms the integral part of the casting apparatus.
  • The power required for injecting the molten metal is provided by the shot cylinder. This shot cylinder is located above the supply of the molten metal (see diagram).
  • The plunger rod goes from the shot cylinder, down to the plunger which is in contact with the molten metal.
  • At the beginning of the process, the position of plunger is at the top of the hot chamber.
  • The molten metal gets filled in the hot chamber from the intake port.
hot chamber die casting
  • Now the power cylinder forces the plunger downward due to which the plunger travels downward.
  • This cuts off the ports and the flow of molten metal in the hot chamber stops.
  • There should be correct amount of molten metal in the chamber which can fill the mold cavity.
  • During this, the plunger travels further down the hot chamber and forces the molten metal to the die.
hot chamber die casting process steps
  • The pressure exerted on the molten metal in the hot chamber die casting process can vary from 5 MPa to 35 MPa.
  • The pressure is maintained in the hot chamber until the solidification of metal.
  • After this process, the casting is removed and the plunger is lifted upward.
hot chamber die casting process steps
  • In this way, same process is repeated for the other new castings to be manufactured.

Advantages of hot chamber die casting

Advantages of hot chamber die casting process are mentioned below.

  1. Hot chamber die casting process is used for achieving a very high rate of productivity.
  2. High dimensional accuracy can be achieved by using a hot chamber die casting process.
  3. The castings obtained by hot chamber die casting have superior mechanical properties.

Disadvantages of hot chamber die casting

Disadvantages of hot chamber die casting process are mentioned below.

  1. The setup of the hot chamber die casting process is such that the important parts like plunger remain continuously submerged in the molten metal.
  2. Because of the rapid contact of plunger with the molten metal, thermal damage occurs to these components. 
  3. Hence, the Hot chamber die casting process is not suitable for metals having very high melting temperatures.

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