Manufacturing Process & its 69 Types (Explained with Images)

manufacturing process definition

Definition of Manufacturing:
Manufacturing is defined as the transformation of raw materials into other different forms (known as products) by using resources like men, machines and  money which satisfies the human needs.

Definition of Process:
Process simply means doing things to the materials that will produce a final product.

Or

Process is defined as a sequence of actions that are required to produce a final product.

Definition of Manufacturing Process:
Manufacturing Process is defined as a sequence of actions that are taken for transforming raw materials into finished products by using resources like men, machines and money.

Different types of manufacturing process are mentioned below.

There are mainly 7 classification of manufacturing process. The examples of manufacturing process are also mentioned below each classification.

Let’s see each type of manufacturing process one by one.

Classification/Types of manufacturing process

Various processes used in manufacturing are classified and explained below with examples.

#1 Primary metal working processes

  • Rolling
  • Drawing
  • Forging
  • Extrusion
  • Bending
  • Piercing

#2 Machining processes

  • Turning
  • Drilling
  • Milling
  • Shaping
  • Slotting
  • Planning
  • Grinding
  • Threading
  • Boring
  • Producing
  • Sawing
  • Hobbling
  • Knurling
  • Reaming
  • Taping

#3 Joining processes

  • Welding
  • Pouring
  • Soldering
  • Riveting
  • Bolting
  • Pressing
  • Adhesive joining
  • Sintering
  • Screwing

#4 Foundry processes

  • Sand casting
  • Permanent mould casting
  • Die casting
  • Centrifugal casting
  • Precision casting
  • Investment casting and shell moulding

#5 Surface finishing process

  • Sand blasting
  • Buffing
  • Lapping
  • Honing
  • Belt grinding
  • Polishing
  • Electroplating
  • Grinding
  • Metal spraying
  • Tumbling
  • Anodizing
  • Phosphating
  • Pickling
  • Hot dipping
  • Galvanizing
  • Parkerizing
  • Sherardizing
  • Painting
  • Inorganic coating

#6 Process affecting change in properties

  • Heat treatment
  • Hot working
  • Cold working
  • Shot working

#7 Unconventional machining processes

  • Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
  • Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
  • Plasma Arc Machining (PAM)
  • Laser beam machining (LBM)
  • Ion beam machining (IBM)
  • Electro Chemical machining (ECM)
  • Electro Chemical Grinding (ECG)
  • Ultra Sonic machining (USM)
  • Abrasive Jet machining (AJM)
  • Water jet machining (WJM)

The development of all these manufacturing processes is based on 5 M’s of manufacturing process.

Let me give you brief introduction about few of these manufacturing processes.

Let’s dive right into it.

#1 Primary metal working processes

First of all, I want to let you know that metal working process is also known as metal shaping process as well as metal forming process.

There are various techniques in this process which uses force, pressure or stresses which causes the material to change its shape.

The stresses used in these metal working processes are  compression stress, tension stress or their combinations.

The metal working process which are commonly used are discussed below.

Rolling:

Rolling process

Rolling is a process in which metal gets plastically deformed when it is allowed to pass in between the two opposing spinning rolls.

Metal rolling is a deformation process in which the thickness of the work piece is reduced by the application of compression force exerted by the two rotating opposed rolls.

Drawing:

drawing process

Drawing is a cold working process in which wires, tubes, rods and other sections are produced by pulling a metal through a die.

In wire drawing process, one end of wire is reduced and it is passed through the opening of die. Then it is properly gripped and pulled with a greater force which ultimately reduces its diameter.

Forging:

forging process

Forging is a metal working process in which the desired shape of metal is achieved through the plastic deformation of the heated metal.

Depending upon the complications, forging is carried out as open die forging and closed die forging.

In open die forging, the metal is compressed by repeated blows by manual hammer or a mechanical hammer and desired shape is given manually.

In closed die forging, the desired shape of metal is achieved by squeezing a heated metal between two shaped and closed dies.

Extrusion:

extrusion process

Extrusion is a metal forming process in which the block or billet of metal is forced to flow through the die opening to produce a desired cross section shape under a high pressure.

In the extrusion process, the metal is squeezed through an orifice in the die with the application of high pressure with a punch.

Bending:

bending process

Bending is a process of metal forming in which a force is applied to a piece of sheet metal which ultimately causes it to bend at an angle and form a desired shape.

Piercing:

piercing process

Piercing is a type of punching process in which a cylindrical punch pierces a hole into the sheet.

#2 Machining processes

Machining process is defined as a process of removing the unwanted material in the form of a chip by using different types of cutting tools. 

In machining processes, the revolving part is either a workpiece or a tool.

Few important machining processes are discussed below.

Turning:

turning process

Turning is a machining process in which the outer diameter of the cylindrical workpiece is reduced to a required diameter.

In turning process, the workpiece rotates at high speed and the cutting tool removes the unwanted material in the form of chips.

This way the diameter of the workpiece is reduced.

Drilling:

drilling process

Drilling is an operation of making a circular hole in a workpiece by removing the material with the help of a tool called drill bit.

This operation can also be performed on a lathe machine where the workpiece rotates and the drill bit is kept stationary.

Milling:

milling process

In milling process, the metal is cut by the means of a rotating cutter having multiple cutting edges.

The milling cutter rotates at a very high speed and the unwanted metal is removed with the help of multiple cutting edges of the milling cutter.

Slotting:

Metal slotting is a machining process in which the slots are made on the workpiece by removing the material using a cutting tool.

Grinding:

grinding process

Grinding is a metal cutting operation in which the rotating wheel acts as a tool.

It is a process which uses an abrasive tool whose cutting elements are grains of abrasive materials known as grit.

Threading:

threading

Threading is a metal removing process in which a helical groove of V shape or a square shape is produced on a cylindrical surface.

The tool used for this threading operation is a single point cutting tool.

Boring:

boring process

Boring is a machining process in which the drilled hole is enlarged by using a single point cutting tool.

Sawing:

sawing

Sawing is a machining process in which a saw (a multipoint cutting tool) is used to cut the metal.

As the saw moves over the workpiece, each tooth of the saw removes the metal and the cut is obtained on workpiece.

Knurling:

Knurling is a machining process in which horizontal, vertical, cross or diamond shaped lines are made on the outer surface of a cylindrical workpiece.

Reaming:

In reaming process, the reamer tool is used to give accurate dimensions to a previously drilled hole.

A reamer is a multipoint cutter which removes very little amount of material as compared to that of drilling.

Tapping:

tap tool

Tapping is a machining process in which threads are made in the internal part of a drilled hole, so that a bolt can be easily fixed in the threads.

The tool used for tapping operation is called tap tool.

Tap tool is also used to make internal threads in the nut.

Apart from the above discussed machining process, there are few more machining processes such as; Planning, Producing, Hobbling, etc.

#3 Joining processes

As the name suggests, the joining is a process in which two or more pieces are assembled to make a single functional unit.

Sometimes the joining process is carried out for the repair of worn-out or broken parts.

Some of these joining processes are carried out under the application of high pressure while some are carried out without any application of pressure.

Commonly used metal joining process are discussed below.

Welding:

welding process

Welding is a metal joining process in which two or more workpiece are joined with each other with the help of filler material.

Soldering:

soldering process

Soldering is a method of joining two or more metals with the help of other low melting point metal or alloy.

This low melting metal or alloy is melted and applied on the joints and it forms a solid part when it cools down.

The low melting point metal is known as solder.

Riveting:

rivetes

Riveting is a permanent metal joining process in which a small metal part called rivet is used to join the metals.

The rivet is forged between the two metal pieces and this creates a permanent joint between them.

Bolting:

bolting

Bolting is a temporary metal joining process in which nuts and bolts are used to join two metal parts (especially sheets or plates).

Screwing:

screws in hand

Screwing is also a temporary metal joining process in which two metals are joined with the help of a screw.

Besides the above mentioned joining processes, there are other joining process like Pouring, Pressing, Adhesive joining, Sintering, etc.

#4 Foundry processes

Foundry process also known as casting process is a process in which a molten metal is poured into a cavity of desired shape and size of the product to be manufactured.

This molten metal is allowed to solidify and then it is extracted from the mould cavity.

Few casting processes are discussed below.

Sand casting:

sand casting process

Sand casting which is also known as sand molded casting is a metal casting process which uses sand as a mold material.

Investment casting:

Investment casting is a foundry process in which the wax pattern is coated with a ceramic material.

Once the ceramic material is hardened, the internal geometry will be exactly like that of the wax pattern.

After this, the wax is melted out and a molten metal is poured into the hollow cavity where the wax pattern was.

The molten metal solidifies and then the metal casting is broken out.

In this way, investment casting works.

Vacuum casting:

vacuum casting process

Vacuum casting, which is also known as V-process or CLV (Counter gravity Low pressure Vacuum) process, employs a sand mold that contains no moisture or binders.

The cavity of the mould has the shape of the casting and the molten metal takes this shape because of the pressure of vacuum.

Pressure casting:

low pressure permanent mold casting process

Generally in casting process, the molten metal is poured in the mould cavity and then it gets settled due to gravity.

But in pressure casting process, the air pressure is used to force the molten metal through the gating system and mould cavity.

Die casting:

die casting process

Die casting is a manufacturing process in which huge amount of pressure is applied to the molten metal in order to force it through the mold cavity.

As die casting uses a lot of pressure, highly accurate castings with good surface details can be manufactured.

Centrifugal casting:

centrifugal casting process

Centrifugal casting is a manufacturing process in which centrifugal force is used to distribute the molten metal in the mold.

#5 Surface finishing process

Surface finishing involves a process which removes a very negligible amount of metal or material which ultimately adds better surface finish as well as improves the performance of the job.

Few surface finishing process are explained below.

Buffing:

buffing process

Buffing is a finishing process in which uses loose abrasive materials.

The loose abrasive materials remove the imperfections from the surface and hence a smooth finishing is obtained.

Lapping:

lapping machine

Lapping is a surface finishing process in which two surfaces are rubbed with each other with an abrasive materials between them.

Polishing:

polishing process

Polishing is a surface smoothing process and creating a shiny surface by rubbing the abrasive wheel or a leather strop with the workpiece.

Electroplating:

electroplating process

Electroplating is a process in which one metal is coated over the other metal by hydrolysis process.

This is generally done to prevent the corrosion of the material or sometimes it is done for the decorative purpose.

Galvanizing:

galvanizing process

Galvanizing is a process of coating zinc on the steel or iron to prevent its corrosion.

For galvanization process, steel or iron components are dipped in the bath of hot molten zinc.

Besides above discussed processes, there are few more surface finishing process like, Sand blasting, Honing, belt grinding, metal spraying, tumbling, anodizing, phosphating, pickling, parkerizing, sherardizing, painting, inorganic coating, etc.

#6 Process affecting change in properties

There are various process involved in manufacturing which are concerned with increasing the properties like strength, hardness, durability, anti-corrosiveness, etc.

Such process which changes the properties of material are explained below.

Heat treatment:

heat treatment process

Heat treatment process involves heating of a metal at a high temperature but below its melting point, and then cooling this heated metal in a controlled way such that desired properties can be achieved.

Hot working:

Hot working process involves those metal working process in which the plastic deformation of metal takes place above their recrystallization temperature.

Cold working:

Cold working process involves those metal working process in which the plastic deformation of metal takes place below their recrystallization temperature.

#7 Unconventional machining processes

Unconventional machining process are those processes in which there is no direct contact between the tool and the workpiece.

Few unconventional machining processes are mentioned below.

  • Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
  • Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
  • Plasma Arc Machining (PAM)
  • Laser beam machining (LBM)
  • Ion beam machining (IBM)
  • Electro Chemical machining (ECM)
  • Electro Chemical Grinding (ECG)
  • Ultra Sonic machining (USM)
  • Abrasive Jet machining (AJM)
  • Water jet machining (WJM)

External links:
Rolling: Image by Meisam, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Drawing: Image by Eyrian @ en.wikipedia, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Extrusion: Image by Mieymay, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Boring: Image by tony_duell, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Vacuum process: Image by Zahra brznd, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Low pressure casting: Image by Wizard191, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Cold chamber die casting: Image by Pizza mal pi, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Centrifugal casting: Image by Користувач:Shkod, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Lapping: Image by Henrik Haftmann, Copyrighted free use, via Wikimedia Commons
Galvanizing: Image by Babalon246, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Heat treatment: Image by Laurens Sanders, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

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