8 Types of Forging Operations (Explained with Images!)

Different Types of Forging Operations are mentioned below.

  1. Upsetting
  2. Fullering
  3. Edging
  4. Bending
  5. Punching
  6. Forged welding
  7. Flating and setting down
  8. Swaging

Let’s see all these different forging operations one by one.

#1) Upsetting


In upsetting forging operation, the force is applied to the cross section area of the workpiece in the direction parallel to its length axis.

By applying the upsetting force, the cross section area of the workpiece increases.

The upsetting operation is generally used to form a bolt head.

#2) Fullering


Fullering is a forging operation in which the bottom fuller is kept in an angle hole with a heated stock over the fuller.

Then the top fuller is kept above the heated stock and then the force is applied on the top fuller which forges the workpiece.

Fullering is mostly used for preparing a workpiece for further metal forming process.

#3) Edging


Edging is a type of open die forging process in which the forging is carried out at the edges of the workpiece.

In edging operation, the workpiece is forged to a desired shape by compressing it between the two dies.

#4) Bending

bending forging operation

Bending is a metal forming process in which a force is applied to a piece of sheet metal which causes it to bend at a desired angle.

#5) Punching


Punching operation is carried out using a die and punch to make holes in a sheet metal.

For punching operation, the job is first heated and kept on the anvil. Then it is punched to about half the depth of the workpiece.

The workpiece is then rotated upside down and it is punched from this side to get the final hole in a workpiece.

#6) Forged welding

forged welding

Forged welding is a metal joining process in which two metal pieces are joined with each other to increase its length.

To forge the steel, it is first heated at a temperature of 1050 °C to 1150 °C and then it is brought together and hammered.

#7) Flating and setting down

flating and setting down

Generally in many forging operations, the surface of the workpiece becomes rough due to hammering.

The forging marks remain on the upper surface of the forged metal.

Flating is an operation in which the uneven surface of the forging is smoothened out by using a flatter hammer.

Setting down is a forging operation in which the rounded corners are removed and squares are made at this place. This process is done with the help of a set hammer.

#8) Swaging


Swaging is a forging operation in which the workpiece is reduced to a desired shape, usually round shape or hexagonal shape.

For small workpieces, the top and bottom swage pair is used to shape the metal. While for large workpieces, the swage block is used.

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