5 Different Types of Welding Joints used for metal joining are mentioned below.
Here I have discussed each type of welding connections along with some important information about each.
So let’s dive right into it.
5 Different Types of Welding Joints
There are 5 types of welding joints used for the metal joining process.
#1) Butt weld joint
For welding of light materials, butt weld joint is the easiest joint to prepare and it can be welded without a filler material.
As shown in the above diagram, the butting of two metal pieces are made against one another (without overlapping) and then they are welded along the seam between them.
If you want to weld the metal parts without using a filler material, then you must take extreme care to avoid the burning through the metal.
Single “V” butt weld joint is required for joining the metals having thickness from ⅜” to ½” so that the complete penetration of weld takes place.
V grooved butt joints are made like the regular butt joint but the only difference is that the top edge of each metal piece is chamfered so that the contact area between the two pieces is reduced.
The “V” angle formed between the two metal pieces should be approximately 60° and has a depth of about ⅛” to ¼”.
When the thickness of the metal pieces exceeds ½”, the “V” grooves are made on both sides of the metal pieces.
This is known as the “Double-V” joint and the weld is made on both sides.
It is simply like a “V” joint on two sides of the metal piece.
By using a “Double-V” joint, good penetration of the filler material can be achieved.
Apart from all these advantages, there are few limitations of butt weld joints. These are listed below.
Disadvantages of butt joint
- Butt joints involve greater cost of penetration.
- Skilled labor is required for performing butt welding.
- Higher residual stresses and greater shrinkage occurs using this type of welding.
- There is a lack of design flexibility in weld size.
- Assembly cost also increases in some welding operations.
#2) Lap weld joint
Lap weld joint is made by overlapping two pieces of metal and then the edge of the one metal piece is welded with the surface of the other metal piece.
In lap weld, both the metal pieces are required to have a good surface contact with each other along the entire length.
If the metal is having a thickness less than ¼”, then the lap weld can be made without a filler rod also.
If the thickness is more than ¼”, then the lap joint is not practicable on that type of workpiece.
#3) Corner weld joint
Corner weld joint is a type of welding joint in which one metal piece is at the right angle to the other metal piece (and this way both the metal pieces form the corner).
If the thickness of the material is ⅛” or less, then filler material is not generally not used.
For heavier material with thickness exceeding ¼”, one of the two metal pieces should be beveled like a Single-V joint.
#4) Tee weld joint
Tee weld joint is a type of welding connection in which both the metal pieces form the “T-shape”.
In the T joint, the weld is made on both the sides of the perpendicular metal piece.
For welding the T joints, filler rods are necessary for small thickness as well as higher thickness metal pieces.
#5) Edge weld joint
Edge weld joint is a type of welding connection in which the flat edges of the two adjoining metal pieces are welded to form a joint.
Different Welding Positions
The 4 different welding positions are mentioned in the table below.
|Sr no.||Welding positions||AWS designation||Direction of axis|
|1||Flat: The bottom of the metal is on the ground and the weld groove is on the top.||1G||Weld axis is parallel to ground.|
|2||Horizontal: One of the longest edges of any one metal is on the ground.||2G||Weld axis is parallel to ground.|
|3||Vertical: One of the shorter edges of both the metal pieces is on the ground and the workpiece is kept vertical.||3G||Weld axis is perpendicular to ground.|
|4||Overhead: Workpiece is above the head and the weld groove is on the bottom.||4G||Weld axis is parallel to ground.|
There are four different welding positions namely;
- Flat welding position
- Horizontal welding position
- Vertical welding position
- Overhead welding position
Different welding positions are shown in the pictures given below.
1G Flat welding position
According to American welding society (AWS), this type of flat position is represented as Flat position 1G.
2G Horizontal welding position
According to American welding society (AWS), this type of horizontal position is represented as Horizontal position 2G.
3G Vertical welding position
According to American welding society (AWS), this type of vertical position is represented as Vertical position 3G.
4G Overhead welding position
According to American welding society (AWS), this type of overhead position is represented as Overhead position 4G.