9 Different Types of Welds and Joints (With Pictures)

Different types of welds are mentioned below.

Types of welds and joints
  1. Fillet welds
  2. Groove welds
  3. Plug weld
  4. Slot weld
  5. Flash weld
  6. Seam weld
  7. Surfacing weld
  8. Spot weld
  9. Upset weld

Different types of weld joints are mentioned below.

Types of welded joints
  1. Butt weld joint
  2. Lap weld joint
  3. Corner weld joint
  4. Tee weld joint
  5. Edge weld joint

So this was just a short and simple list of types of welds and joints.

Now let me explain to you about all these different types of welds one by one.

Different Types of Welds

#1) Fillet welds

In fillet type weld, the two metal pieces are joined with each other having their surfaces at right angle (90° angle between the surface forming fillet).

Types of fillet welded joints

  1. Single fillet weld joints are generally made in lap joints, T joints, and corner joints. The strength of single fillet joints depends upon the size of the fillet.
  2. Double fillet weld joint is also used for making T joints, lap joints, and corner joints. Double fillet welded joints develop good strength as compared to single fillet joints. Hence they are used for fatigue type of loading.

#2) Groove welds

What is Weld groove?
The weld groove is a channel in the workpiece or between the openings of two workpieces which will contain the weld metal.

There can be different types of groove welds (like single groove welds, double groove welds, etc.) depending upon the type of applications.

Single groove welds are made on the single side of the workpiece and they are not used for bending or fatigue load as they fail due to stress concentration on the weld root.

Double groove welds are those weld in which the weld is made on both the sides. This type of weld develops more strength and they can be used for fatigue loads.

Types of groove welded joints

Types of groove weld joints

Types of groove welds are mentioned below.

  • Square groove welds: Square groove welds can be used with butt joint, T-joint, corner joint, and edge joint. If the workpiece is upto 3 mm thick, then the complete penetration of square groove is obtained without any root opening. But if the thickness is more than 6 mm, then such complete penetration can be achieved using adequate root opening.
  • Single V groove welds: This type of joints are suitable for workpieces with thickness ranging from 6 mm to 19 mm, with a root opening of 60°.
  • Double V groove welds: This type of welds are used for workpieces having thickness 12 mm to 38 mm. Double groove weld joints are made on both sides of the workpiece so that the heat input is balanced.
  • Single bevel groove welds: The single bevel groove joints include butt joint, tee joint, and corner joints. The workpiece with thickness 6 mm to 19 mm is applicable for this type of weld.
  • Double bevel groove welds: Double bevel groove is similar to the Double V groove, but in double bevel groove welds, the single metal piece possesses a bevel groove on both the sides.
  • Single U groove welds: The single U groove welds can be applied to corner joints and butt joints. Better side wall fusion can be easily achieved using U groove weld because of the rounded bottom.
  • Double U groove welds: Double groove weld is suitable for workpieces having thickness 38 mm.
  • Single J groove welds: Single J groove weld is used for butt joint, T joint as well as corner joint. It can be used for workpieces with thickness more than 19 mm.
  • Double J groove welds: This type of weld can withstand all types of loads and these welds are recommended for the workpiece having thickness more than 38 mm.

#3) Plug weld

Plug weld is a type of weld in which two metals are joined with each other using a weld placed in small circular holes.

Plug weld is applicable for joining of overlapping metals in which the top metal contains a hole for the weld deposition.

#4) Slot weld

Slot weld is just similar to plug weld, but the only difference is that the slot weld has an elongated hole (that is like a slot).

In slot welds, the slot is either completely filled or partially filled with the weld metal.

#5) Flash weld

Flash welding is a type of welding process which does not use any filler material, but it is a resistance welding process that uses energy produced by resistance heat which produces a fusion over the entire weld surface.

#6) Seam weld

Seam welding is a type of resistance welding in which metals are welded with each other by using electric current.

In seam welding process, the nuggets (small pool of molten metal) are formed in the region where there is higher electric resistance.

The joining of metals takes place with the help of these nuggets.

#7) Surfacing weld

Surfacing welding is a welding process in which a hard, wear resistance layer of metal is applied to the surfaces or edges of worn out parts.

#8) Spot weld

Spot welding is a type of welding process  in which two or more metal sheets are welded together by applying a pressure and heat to the area to be welded.

#9) Upset weld

Upset welding is also a type of resistance welding process which uses heat and pressure to form a weld.

The heat is produced due to the resistance to the flow of electric current in the area of contact between the surfaces.

Different Welding Positions

The 4 different welding positions are mentioned in the table below.

Sr no.Welding positionsAWS designationDirection of axis
1Flat: The bottom of the metal is on the ground and the weld groove is on the top.1GWeld axis is parallel to ground.
2Horizontal: One of the longest edges of any one metal is on the ground.2GWeld axis is parallel to ground.
3Vertical: One of the shorter edges of both the metal pieces is on the ground and the workpiece is kept vertical.3GWeld axis is perpendicular to ground.
4Overhead: Workpiece is above the head and the weld groove is on the bottom.4GWeld axis is parallel to ground.

There are four different welding positions namely;

  • Flat welding position
  • Horizontal welding position
  • Vertical welding position
  • Overhead welding position

Different welding positions are shown in the pictures given below.

1G Flat welding position

1G flat welding position

According to American welding society (AWS), this type of flat position is represented as Flat position 1G.

2G Horizontal welding position

Horizontal position 2G

According to American welding society (AWS), this type of horizontal position is represented as Horizontal position 2G.

3G Vertical welding position

3G Vertical welding position

According to American welding society (AWS), this type of vertical position is represented as Vertical position 3G.

4G Overhead welding position

4G Overhead welding position

According to American welding society (AWS), this type of overhead position is represented as Overhead position 4G.

1G horizontal rolled position

1G horizontal rolled position

5G horizontal fixed position

5G horizontal fixed position

2G vertical position

2G vertical position

6G inclined position

6G inclined position

External links:
Types of weld grooves: Image credits Benrunge, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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