What is Warm Working?
Definition: Warm working (also known as warm forming) is defined as a metal forming process in which the plastic deformation of metals takes place above the room temperature but below their recrystallization temperature.
Warm working is carried out in order to get the advantages of both hot working and cold working.
Advantages of warm working over cold working
- In warm working, the load acting on the equipment is very less as compared to that in cold working.
- As the metal is heated up to some temperature, its ductility is more as compared to cold working.
- Strain hardening is less in warm working, so very few intermediate annealing operations are required.
- As warm working requires less number of annealing operations, there is more energy savings in warm working.
Advantages of warm working over hot working
- Amount of heat energy required to heat the metal is less as compared to hot working operations.
- Warm working gives more precision as compared to hot working.
- In warm working, the scale or oxide formation on the metal surface is less as compared to that with hot working.
- In warm working, dimensional accuracy and surface finish is better than that obtained with hot working.
- Thermal shocks that occur on tools are less compared to that with hot working.
- Thermal fatigue on tooling is less which leads to better life of the tools.