Is SiCl4 Polar or Nonpolar? (And Why?)

Is SiCl4 Polar or Nonpolar

SiCl4 is a NONPOLAR molecule.

But why? 

And how can you say that SiCl4 is a nonpolar molecule?

Want to know the reason?
Let’s dive into it!

SiCl4 is a NONPOLAR molecule because all the four bonds (Si-Cl bonds) are identical and SiCl4 has symmetrical geometry which cancels out the bond polarity.

Let me explain this in detail with the help of SiCl4 lewis structure and its 3D geometry.

Why is SiCl4 a Nonpolar molecule? (Explained in 3 Steps)

SiCl4 is a nonpolar molecule because it does not have any pole of positive charge and negative charge on it.

Let me explain this to you in 3 steps!

Step #1: Draw the lewis structure

Here is a skeleton of SiCl4 lewis structure and it contains four Si-Cl bonds.

Is SiCl4 Polar or Nonpolar

(Note: If you want to know the steps of drawing the SiCl4 lewis dot structure, then visit this article: SiCl4 lewis structure, Or you can also watch this short 2 minute video).

So from the above diagram we have come to know that the SiCl4 molecule has four Si-Cl bonds.

Now in the next step we have to check whether these four Si-Cl bonds are polar or nonpolar.

Step #2: Check whether individual bonds are polar or nonpolar

The chemical bonds can be either nonpolar, polar or ionic depending on the difference of the electronegativity values (ΔEN) between the two atoms.

Have a look at the above image.

  • If the electronegativity difference (ΔEN) is less than 0.4, then the bond is nonpolar covalent bond.
  • If the electronegativity difference (ΔEN) is between 0.4 to 1.7, then the bond is polar covalent bond. 
  • If the electronegativity difference (ΔEN) is greater than 1.7, then the bond is an ionic bond. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Now let’s come to the example of SiCl4 molecule. It has four Si-Cl bonds.

You can see the electronegativity values of Silicon (Si) and Chlorine (Cl) atoms from the periodic table given below.

From the above image;

  • Electronegativity of Silicon (Si) = 1.9 [6]
  • Electronegativity of Chlorine (Cl) = 3.16 [7]

Now let’s see the polarity of each bond.

For Si-Cl bond;
The electronegativity difference (ΔEN) = 3.16 – 1.9 = 1.29
This value lies between 0.4 to 1.7, which indicates that the bond between Silicon (Si) and Chlorine (Cl) is polar.
Hence, each Si-Cl bond is a polar covalent bond.

Is SiCl4 Polar or Nonpolar

You can see in the above image that because of electronegativity difference, the partial positive charge (ẟ+) appears on the Silicon atom (Si) and partial negative charge (ẟ-) appears on the Chlorine atoms (Cl).

But wait, this alone won’t tell you whether the entire SiCl4 molecule is polar or nonpolar.

So let’s proceed to the next step to check the symmetry of the SiCl4 molecule.

Step #3: Check whether the molecule is symmetric or not

Have a look at this 3D structure of SiCl4. You can see that the structure of SiCl4 is symmetrical. 

The silicon atom is at the center and it is surrounded by 4 chlorine atoms which are equidistant as well as at equal angles.

Is SiCl4 Polar or Nonpolar

As all the four bonds (Si-Cl) are symmetrical and the SiCl4 molecule has a symmetrical geometry, their bond polarity gets canceled with each other.

Because of this, there are no positive and negative poles of charges on the overall molecule of SiCl4.

Hence, the SiCl4 molecule is a nonpolar molecule.

I hope you have understood the reason behind the nonpolar nature of SiCl4 molecule.

See the polarity of other molecules to make your concepts clear:
Is F2 Polar or Nonpolar?
Is I2 Polar or Nonpolar?
Is H2O2 Polar or Nonpolar?
Is Ethyl acetate (C4H8O2) Polar or Nonpolar?
Is CH3Br Polar or Nonpolar? 


Jay is an educator and has helped more than 100,000 students in their studies by providing simple and easy explanations on different science-related topics. With a desire to make learning accessible for everyone, he founded Knords Learning, an online learning platform that provides students with easily understandable explanations.

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