What is the Ionic Charge of Cadmium (Cd)? And Why?

The Ionic Charge of Cadmium (Cd) is 2+.

But the question is how can you find the ionic charge on Cadmium (Cd)?

Well there are 2 methods by which you can find the ionic charge of Cadmium (Cd).

Lets dive right into these methods one by one.

If you are a visual learner like me, then here is a short two minute video for you.

Method 1: By looking at the ionic charge trends on periodic table

This is a very simple method to determine the ionic charge of the monatomic ions.

First of all, let’s look at the group-wise ionic charge trends on the periodic table.

You can see in the above periodic table that;

• Elements of group 1 have 1+ ionic charge,
• Elements of group 2 have 2+ ionic charge,

(Exclude transition metals, because they have variable ionic charges)

• Elements of group 13 have 3+ ionic charge,

(Exclude group 14, because they can have 4+ or 4- ionic charges)

• Elements of group 15 have 3- ionic charge,
• Elements of group 16 have 2- ionic charge,
• Elements of group 17 have 1- ionic charge,
• Elements of group 18 have 0 ionic charge,

Now here our element is Cadmium (Cd) which lies in group 12 of the periodic table.

Cadmium is a post-transition element, but as shown in the ionic charge trends on periodic table (above image), few transition and post-transition elements also show fixed ionic charge.

So on the basis of this trend,
The ionic charge of Cadmium (Cd) is 2+.

Note:
The blank area shown in the above periodic table are mostly the transition and post-transition elements.
They show variable ionic charge.
Hence we cannot find their ionic charge by simply looking at the periodic table.
In order to find the charge of these elements, we need to look at what it is bonded with.
For more information, read the example of finding the charge of Copper.

Okay so now let’s see another method to find the ionic charge of Cadmium (Cd).

Method 2: By using electron configuration

The electron configuration of Cadmium is: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 or [Kr] 4d10 5s2. [1]

You can see that the outermost orbit of Cadmium has 2 electrons.

During the chemical reaction, cadmium loses these 2 electrons and achieves the nearest noble gas configuration to become stable.

And as the Cadmium (Cd) loses 2 electrons, it forms Cd2+ ion.

Hence the ionic charge of Cadmium (Cd) is 2+.

I hope you have understood the reason behind the 2+ charge of cadmium.

Check out some other related topics for your practice.

Author
Jay Rana

Jay is an educator and has helped more than 100,000 students in their studies by providing simple and easy explanations on different science-related topics. With a desire to make learning accessible for everyone, he founded Knords Learning, an online learning platform that provides students with easily understandable explanations.