Lewis Structure of O3 (With 6 Simple Steps to Draw!)

Lewis Structure of O3

I’m super excited to teach you the lewis structure of O3 in just 6 simple steps.

Infact, I’ve also given the step-by-step images for drawing the lewis dot structure of O3 molecule.

So, if you are ready to go with these 6 simple steps, then let’s dive right into it!

Lewis structure of O3 (Ozone) contains one double bond and one single bond between both the Oxygen (O) atoms. The central Oxygen atom has one lone pair, while the outer Oxygen atoms have two and three lone pairs.

Let’s draw and understand this lewis dot structure step by step.

(Note: Take a pen and paper with you and try to draw this lewis structure along with me. I am sure you will definitely learn how to draw lewis structure of O3).

6 Steps to Draw the Lewis Structure of O3

Step #1: Calculate the total number of valence electrons

Here, the given molecule is O3 (ozone). In order to draw the lewis structure of O3, first of all you have to find the total number of valence electrons present in the O3 molecule.
(Valence electrons are the number of electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom).

So, let’s calculate this first.

Calculation of valence electrons in O3

  • For Oxygen:

Oxygen is a group 16 element on the periodic table.

Hence, the valence electron present in oxygen is 6 (see below image).

Hence, total number of Valence electrons in O3 molecule = 6 (3) = 18

Step #2: Select the center atom

While selecting the atom, you have to put the least electronegative atom at the center. 

But here in the O3 molecule, all the three atoms are the same. So you can consider any of the atoms as a center atom.

step 1

Step #3: Put two electrons between the atoms to represent a chemical bond

Now in the above sketch of O3 molecule, put the two electrons (i.e electron pair) between these three oxygen atoms to represent a chemical bond between them.

step 2

These pair of electrons present between the Oxygen (O) atoms form a chemical bond, which bonds the oxygen atoms with each other in an O3 molecule.

Step #4: Complete the octet (or duplet) on outside atom. If the valence electrons are left, then put the valence electrons pair on the central atom

Don’t worry, I’ll explain!

In the Lewis structure of O3, the outer atoms are oxygen atoms only.

So now, you have to complete the octet on these outer oxygen atoms (because oxygen requires 8 electrons to have a complete outer shell).

step 3

Now, you can see in the above image that both the oxygen atoms form an octet.

Also, only 16 valence electrons of O3 molecule are used in the above structure.

But there are total 18 valence electrons in O3 molecule (as calculated in step #1).

So the number of electrons left to be kept on the central atom = 18 – 16 = 2.

So let’s keep these two electrons (i.e electron pair) on the central oxygen atom.

step 4

Now, let’s move to the next step.

Step #5: Check whether the central atom has octet or not. If it does not have an octet, then move the electron pair from the outer atom to form a double bond or triple bond

In this step, we have to check whether the central atom (i.e central oxygen) has an octet or not. 

In simple words, we have to check whether the central Oxygen (O) atom has 8 electrons or not.

step 5

As you can see from the above image, the central oxygen atom has only 6 electrons. So it does not fulfill the octet rule.

Now, in order to fulfill the octet of central oxygen atom, we have to move the electron pair from the outer oxygen atom to form a double bond.

step 6

Now you can see from the above image that the central oxygen atom is having 8 electrons. So it fulfills the octet rule.

Step #6: Final step – Check the stability of lewis structure by calculating the formal charge on each atom

Now, you have come to the final step and here you have to check the formal charge on each oxygen atom (O).

For that, you need to remember the formula of formal charge;

Formal charge = Valence electrons – Nonbonding electrons – (Bonding electrons)/2

step 7
  • For central Oxygen:
    Valence electron = 6 (as it is in group 16)
    Nonbonding electrons = 2
    Bonding electrons = 6
  • For double bonded Oxygen:
    Valence electron = 6 (as it is in group 16)
    Nonbonding electrons = 4
    Bonding electrons = 4
  • For single bonded Oxygen:
    Valence electron = 6 (as it is in group 16)
    Nonbonding electrons = 6
    Bonding electrons = 2
Formal charge=Valence electronsNonbonding electrons(Bonding electrons)/2
Central O=626/2=+1
Double bonded O=644/2=0
Single bonded O=662/2=-1

So you can see above that there is still a formal charge (+1 and -1) on the oxygen atoms.

If we try to add an electron pair on the central oxygen atom, then there will be 8 + 2 = 10 electrons in its outermost orbit. And oxygen atom does not have the capacity to hold 10 electrons.

Because of this reason, the above lewis dot structure of O3 is a stable structure.

Each electron pair (:) in the lewis dot structure of O3 represents the single bond ( | ). So the above lewis dot structure of O3 can also be represented as shown below.

O3 Lewis Structure

Related lewis structures for your practice:
Lewis structure of C2H2
Lewis structure of CH2O
Lewis structure of SO3
Lewis structure of C2H4
Lewis structure of SF4

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