Oxygen (O) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

oxygen element periodic table

Oxygen element (O) is in group 16 and period 2 of a periodic table. Oxygen is in the p-block and it is classified as an oxygen group element (chalcogens) on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to oxygen which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Oxygen Element (Information Table)

The important data related to oxygen element is given in the table below.

Appearance of oxygenColorless gas
Atomic number of oxygen8
Symbol of oxygenO
Atomic mass of oxygen15.999 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in oxygenProtons: 8, Neutrons: 8, Electrons: 8
State of oxygen (at STP)Gas
Group number of oxygen in periodic table16
Period number of oxygen in periodic table2
Block of oxygen in periodic tablep-block
Category of oxygenNonmetals (Chalcogens)
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in oxygen2, 6
Electron configuration of oxygen[He] 2s2 2p4
Orbital diagram of oxygenorbital diagram of oxygen
Valence electrons in oxygen6
Electronegativity of oxygen (on pauling scale)3.44
Atomic radius of oxygen (van der Waals radius)152 picometers
Density of oxygen1.43 g/L
1st ionization energy of oxygen13.61 eV
Main isotope of oxygen16O
Melting point of oxygen54.36 K or -218.79 °C or -361.82 °F
Boiling point of oxygen90.188 K or -182.962 °C or -297.332 °F
Crystal structure of oxygenSimple cubic
Discovery of oxygenBy Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1771

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Oxygen element in Periodic table

The Oxygen element (O) has the atomic number 8 and is located in group 16 and period 2. Oxygen is a nonmetal and it is classified as a chalcogen element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about oxygen

Here are a few interesting facts about oxygen element.

  1. In gaseous state, oxygen gas appears as a colorless gas. But in its liquid state, it appears in pale-blue color.
  2. Oxygen does not exist as a single atom, but it always exists as a divalent molecule (O2).
  3. The 3rd most abundant element found in the universe is oxygen.
  4. Oxygen is essential for all the living organisms for their survival.
  5. The plants also produce oxygen during the photosynthesis process. Phytoplankton are the sea plants that produce the majority of oxygen on the earth.
  6. Oxygen gas helps in the combustion process, but it does not burn on its own.
  7. Around 21% of the earth’s atmosphere is oxygen.
  8. Approximately 4.9ml of oxygen is dissolved in the 1 liter of seawater.
  9. Human body is made up of water (H2O) which contains oxygen in it. Oxygen contributes around 2/3rd of the human body mass.

Properties of oxygen

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of oxygen.

Physical properties of oxygen

  • Oxygen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.
  • In liquid state, the oxygen shows pale-blue color.
  • The melting point and boiling point of oxygen is 54.36 K and 90.188 K respectively.
  • The oxygen gas shows more solubility than the nitrogen gas. Moreover the solubility of oxygen is also dependent on the temperature.
  • Ozone is the allotrope of oxygen which is found in the upper atmosphere of the earth.
  • Ozone has a bluish appearance in both gaseous as well as liquid state.

Chemical properties of oxygen

  • At STP, the 2 oxygen atoms combine and form a dioxygen molecule (i.e O2).
  • Oxygen atom reacts with other elements to form the oxides.
  • After fluorine, oxygen is the second strong oxidizing agent.
  • Oxygen is a helper of combustion, that means it helps other substances to burn.
  • Oxygen reacts with metals at room temperature in the presence of moisture and this results in corrosion of metals.

Uses of oxygen

Here are some uses of the oxygen element.

  • Oxygen is widely used with other fuel gases. In oxy acetylene gas welding, the oxygen gas is used with acetylene gas.
  • The oxygen gas is also used in blast furnaces to increase the combustion temperatures.
  • Liquid fueled rockets also contain liquid oxygen that is used as an oxidizing agent.
  • Oxygen also has its applications in the breathing apparatus used in hospitals.
  • Scuba divers, underwater welding (or any other work), mountaineers, etc use oxygen tank.
  • Oxygen is also used in the biological treatment of sewage water plants.

External resources:

  1. Oxygen – Energy Education. (n.d.). Oxygen – Energy Education. https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Oxygen
  2. Oxygen | Center for Science Education. (n.d.). Oxygen | Center for Science Education. https://scied.ucar.edu/learning-zone/air-quality/oxygen
  3. Oxygen – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Oxygen – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/8/oxygen
  4. It’s Elemental – The Element Oxygen. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Oxygen. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele008.html
  5. Oxygen – Wikipedia. (2007, December 15). Oxygen – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen
  6. P. (n.d.). Oxygen | O (Element) – PubChem. Oxygen | O (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/8
  7. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. https://periodic.lanl.gov/8.shtml
  8. Atomic Weight of Oxygen | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Oxygen | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. https://ciaaw.org/oxygen.htm
  9. Atomic Data for Oxygen (O ). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Oxygen (O ). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/oxygentable1.htm
  10. Oxygen, atomic | O | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Oxygen, Atomic | O | ChemSpider. http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.140526.html?rid=8b630d6f-2ac6-495e-be97-5aa0651e939c&page_num=0
  11. C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – OXYGEN. (n.d.). C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – OXYGEN. https://pubsapp.acs.org/cen/80th/oxygen.html?
  12. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17118
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  14. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1800011
  15. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100785a001
  16. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  17. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-0703
  18. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5
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