Boron (B) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

boron element periodic table

Boron element (B) is in group 13 and period 2 of a periodic table. Boron is in the p-block and it is classified as a Metalloid on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to boron which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Boron Element (Information Table)

The important data related to boron element is given in the table below.

Appearance of boronBlack and brown
Atomic number of boron5
Symbol of boronB
Atomic mass of boron10.81 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in boronProtons: 5, Neutrons: 6, Electrons: 5
State of boron (at STP)Solid
Group number of boron in periodic table13
Period number of boron in periodic table2
Block of boron in periodic tablep-block
Category of boronMetalloids
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in boron2, 3
Electron configuration of boron[He] 2s2 2p1
Orbital diagram of boronorbital diagram of boron
Valence electrons in boron3
Electronegativity of boron (on pauling scale)2.04
Atomic radius of boron (van der Waals radius)192 picometers
Density of boron2.08 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of boron8.298 eV
Main isotope of boron11B
Melting point of boron2349 K or 2076 °C or 3769 °F
Boiling point of boron4200 K or 3927 °C or 7101 °F
Crystal structure of boronRhombohedral
Discovery of boronBy Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thenard (in 1808)

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Boron element in Periodic table

The Boron element (B) has the atomic number 5 and is located in group 13 and period 2. Boron is a metalloid and it is classified as a boron group element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about boron

Here are a few interesting facts about boron element.

  1. Boron has the highest melting point out of all the metalloids present on the periodic table.
  2. Boron is the lightest element in the boron family.
  3. The boron is produced largely in Turkey and the US.
  4. 50% of the total boron production is used in manufacturing of fiberglass and structural materials.

Properties of boron

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of boron.

Physical properties of boron

  • Boron is a brittle metal having a lustrous black and brown surface.
  • The melting point and boiling point of boron is 2349 K and 4200 K respectively.
  • The atomic size of boron is 192 picometers.

Chemical properties of boron

  • The boron element has 3 valence electrons that form covalent bonds with other elements.
  • Boron can easily form oxides, sulfides, nitrides and halides.
  • Boron reacts with the air at higher temperature and forms boron trioxide.
  • Boron and hydrogen react with each other to form boranes.

Uses of boron

Here are some uses of the boron element.

  • The main use of boron is in manufacturing of fiberglass for insulations as well as in other structural materials.
  • Boron trifluoride (BF3) is a compound of boron that is used as a catalyst in petrochemical industries.
  • Boron is also used in manufacturing of boric acid.
  • Boron is added to boron steels in very small proportions to increase its hardenability.
  • Boron is also used in making strong permanent magnets.

External resources:

  1. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  2. Chemistry of Boron (Z=5). (2013, October 2). Chemistry LibreTexts.
  3. Boron – Wikipedia. (2011, December 4). Boron – Wikipedia.
  4. It’s Elemental – The Element Boron. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Boron.
  5. Boron – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Boron – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  6. P. (n.d.). Boron | B (Element) – PubChem. Boron | B (Element) – PubChem.
  7. Atomic Weight of Boron | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Boron | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  8. Boron | B | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Boron | B | ChemSpider.
  9. Boron Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Boron Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey.
  11. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  12. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  13. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259.
  14. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451.
  15. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  16. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092.
  17. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.
  18. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  19. Zhang, Y., Evans, J. R. G., & Yang, S. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337.
  20. Possolo, A., van der Veen, A. M. H., Meija, J., & Hibbert, D. B. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.

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