Gallium element (Ga) is in group 13 and period 4 of a periodic table. Gallium is in the p-block and it is classified as a post-transition element on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to gallium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Gallium element (Information Table)
- Gallium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Gallium
- Properties of Gallium
- Uses of Gallium
Gallium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to gallium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of gallium||Silvery blue in color|
|Atomic number of gallium||31|
|Symbol of gallium||Ga|
|Atomic mass of gallium||69.723 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in gallium||Protons: 31, Neutrons: 39, Electrons: 31|
|State of gallium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of gallium in periodic table||13|
|Period number of gallium in periodic table||4|
|Block of gallium in periodic table||p-block|
|Category of gallium||Post transition element (boron group)|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in gallium||2, 8, 18, 3|
|Electron configuration of gallium||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1|
|Orbital diagram of gallium|
|Valence electrons in gallium||3|
|Electronegativity of gallium (on pauling scale)||1.81|
|Atomic radius of gallium (van der Waals radius)||187 picometers|
|Density of gallium||5.904 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of gallium||5.999 eV|
|Main isotope of gallium||69Ga|
|Melting point of gallium||302.9 K or 29.7 °C or 85.5 °F|
|Boiling point of gallium||2673 K or 2400 °C or 4352 °F|
|Crystal structure of gallium||Orthorhombic|
|Discovery of gallium||By Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Gallium element in Periodic table
The Gallium element (Ga) has the atomic number 31 and is located in group 13 and period 4. Gallium is a metal and it is classified as a post-transition element.
Facts about gallium
Here are a few interesting facts about gallium element.
- Gallium was given its name from the Latin word “Gallia”.
- Gallium is a soft metal and it can be cut with a knife.
- Gallium is the 34th most abundant element found from the earth’s crust.
- The quantity of gallium in the earth’s crust is around 0.0019% by weight.
- Gallium shows an expansion on freezing. Hence gallium should not be stored in glass containers.
- There is a large difference between the melting point and boiling point of gallium. Its melting point is 29.7 °C, which is close to room temperature, while its boiling point is 2400 °C.
- Gallium melts in your hand due to the heat of the body.
Properties of gallium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of gallium.
Physical properties of gallium
- Gallium is a soft metal and it has a silvery blue appearance.
- Gallium becomes brittle at lower temperatures.
- Gallium shows expansion in its volume on freezing.
- The melting point of gallium is 29.7 °C and its booking point is 2400 °C.
- There are many isotopes of gallium, but out of those isotopes, the most abundant isotope is 69Ga (it has an abundance of around 60%).
Chemical properties of gallium
- Gallium is a less reactive element but it slowly forms an oxide layer on it when kept open in the air.
- Gallium reacts with group 16 elements (chalcogens) at higher temperatures.
- The electron configuration of gallium is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1 and it is classified as a post-transition element on the periodic table.
- Gallium also shows a reaction with oxygen at higher temperature and this forms a gallium oxide.
- The thin oxide layer formed on the pure gallium protects it from attack of mineral acids.
Uses of gallium
Here are some uses of the gallium element.
- Gallium arsenide is a compound of gallium that is used in microwave as well as infrared circuits.
- Gallium arsenide produces a laser light when the electric current is passed through it.
- Gallium is also used in equipment like barometers, high temperature thermometers, etc.
- Gallium nitride is used in pressure sensors as well as blu-ray technology.
- Gallium is also used to make alloys that require a low melting temperature.