Gallium (Ga) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

gallium element periodic table

Gallium element (Ga) is in group 13 and period 4 of a periodic table. Gallium is in the p-block and it is classified as a post-transition element on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to gallium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Gallium Element (Information Table)

The important data related to gallium element is given in the table below.

Appearance of galliumSilvery blue in color
Atomic number of gallium31
Symbol of galliumGa
Atomic mass of gallium69.723 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in galliumProtons: 31, Neutrons: 39, Electrons: 31
State of gallium (at STP)Solid
Group number of gallium in periodic table13
Period number of gallium in periodic table4
Block of gallium in periodic tablep-block
Category of galliumPost transition element (boron group)
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in gallium2, 8, 18, 3
Electron configuration of gallium[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Orbital diagram of galliumorbital diagram of gallium
Valence electrons in gallium3
Electronegativity of gallium (on pauling scale)1.81
Atomic radius of gallium (van der Waals radius)187 picometers
Density of gallium5.904 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of gallium5.999 eV
Main isotope of gallium69Ga
Melting point of gallium302.9 K or 29.7 °C or 85.5 °F
Boiling point of gallium2673 K or 2400 °C or 4352 °F
Crystal structure of galliumOrthorhombic
Discovery of galliumBy Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Gallium element in Periodic table

The Gallium element (Ga) has the atomic number 31 and is located in group 13 and period 4. Gallium is a metal and it is classified as a post-transition element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about gallium

Here are a few interesting facts about gallium element.

  1. Gallium was given its name from the Latin word “Gallia”.
  2. Gallium is a soft metal and it can be cut with a knife.
  3. Gallium is the 34th most abundant element found from the earth’s crust.
  4. The quantity of gallium in the earth’s crust is around 0.0019% by weight.
  5. Gallium shows an expansion on freezing. Hence gallium should not be stored in glass containers.
  6. There is a large difference between the melting point and boiling point of gallium. Its melting point is 29.7 °C, which is close to room temperature, while its boiling point is 2400 °C.
  7. Gallium melts in your hand due to the heat of the body.

Properties of gallium

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of gallium.

Physical properties of gallium

  • Gallium is a soft metal and it has a silvery blue appearance.
  • Gallium becomes brittle at lower temperatures.
  • Gallium shows expansion in its volume on freezing.
  • The melting point of gallium is 29.7 °C and its booking point is 2400 °C.
  • There are many isotopes of gallium, but out of those isotopes, the most abundant isotope is 69Ga (it has an abundance of around 60%).

Chemical properties of gallium

  • Gallium is a less reactive element but it slowly forms an oxide layer on it when kept open in the air.
  • Gallium reacts with group 16 elements (chalcogens) at higher temperatures.
  • The electron configuration of gallium is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1 and it is classified as a post-transition element on the periodic table.
  • Gallium also shows a reaction with oxygen at higher temperature and this forms a gallium oxide.
  • The thin oxide layer formed on the pure gallium protects it from attack of mineral acids.

Uses of gallium

Here are some uses of the gallium element.

  • Gallium arsenide is a compound of gallium that is used in microwave as well as infrared circuits.
  • Gallium arsenide produces a laser light when the electric current is passed through it.
  • Gallium is also used in equipment like barometers, high temperature thermometers, etc.
  • Gallium nitride is used in pressure sensors as well as blu-ray technology.
  • Gallium is also used to make alloys that require a low melting temperature.

External resources:

  1. Gallium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Gallium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  2. Gallium – Wikipedia. (2009, July 7). Gallium – Wikipedia.
  3. It’s Elemental – The Element Gallium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Gallium.
  4. P. (n.d.). Gallium | Ga (Element) – PubChem. Gallium | Ga (Element) – PubChem.
  5. Gallium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Gallium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey.
  6. Gallium | Ga | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Gallium | Ga | ChemSpider.
  7. Atomic Data for Gallium (Ga). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Gallium (Ga).
  8. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  9. Possolo, et al. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.
  10. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  11. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  12. Electronic structure of the elements. (2000, March). The European Physical Journal C, 15(1–4), 78–79.
  13. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  14. Bedford, et al. (1996, April 1). Recommended values of temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a selected set of secondary reference points. Metrologia, 33(2), 133–154.
  15. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.

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