Magnesium (Mg) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

magnesium element periodic table

Magnesium element (Mg) is in group 2 and period 3 of a periodic table. Magnesium is in the s-block and it is classified as an alkaline earth metal on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to magnesium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Magnesium Element (Information Table)

The important data related to magnesium element is given in the table below.

Appearance of magnesiumShiny gray
Atomic number of magnesium12
Symbol of magnesiumMg
Atomic mass of magnesium24.305 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in magnesiumProtons: 12, Neutrons: 12, Electrons: 12
State of magnesium (at STP)Solid
Group number of magnesium in periodic table2
Period number of magnesium in periodic table3
Block of magnesium in periodic tables-block
Category of magnesiumAlkaline earth metals
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in magnesium2, 8, 2
Electron configuration of magnesium[Ne] 3s2
Orbital diagram of magnesiumorbital diagram of magnesium
Valence electrons in magnesium2
Electronegativity of magnesium (on pauling scale)1.31
Atomic radius of magnesium (van der Waals radius)173 picometers
Density of magnesium1.74 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of magnesium7.646 eV
Main isotope of magnesium24Mg
Melting point of magnesium923 K or 650 °C or 1202 °F
Boiling point of magnesium1363 K or 1091 °C or 1994 °F
Crystal structure of magnesiumHexagonal Closed Packing (HCP)
Discovery of magnesiumBy Joseph Black in 1755

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Magnesium element in Periodic table

The Magnesium element (Mg) has the atomic number 12 and is located in group 2 and period 3. Magnesium is in solid state at STP and it is classified as an alkaline earth metal on the periodic table.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about magnesium

Here are a few interesting facts about magnesium element.

  1. The name magnesium comes from the Greek region “Magnesia”.
  2. Magnesium element is found from the sea as well as from the earth’s crust.
  3. The magnesium element is the 8th most abundant element present in the earth’s crust.
  4. Magnesium is the 11th most abundant element (by mass) in the human body.
  5. Around 60% of the total magnesium in the human body is present in the skeleton.
  6. Magnesium is present in the center of the chlorophyll and it is important for photosynthesis.
  7. Magnesium is also an important element for the human body which performs the biochemical reactions.

Properties of magnesium

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of magnesium.

Physical properties of magnesium

  • Magnesium has a shiny-gray appearance and is a solid metal.
  • Magnesium is light-weight and soft metal.
  • The magnesium metal has a density of 1.74 g/cm3 which is 2/3rd the density of aluminum.
  • The magnesium forms an alloy with 1% aluminum which increases the ductility of the alloy.
  • The melting point and boiling point of magnesium are 650 °C and 1091 °C respectively.

Chemical properties of magnesium

  • Magnesium forms a thin oxide layer on its surface when kept open in the air.
  • Magnesium is a reactive metal and hence it is always found as a compound with other elements in the earth’s crust.
  • When magnesium metal (or a magnesium metal strip) is submerged in water, it liberates the hydrogen gas.
  • Magnesium gives a bright white light when exposed to fire.
  • Magnesium easily reacts with acids and liberates heat during the reaction.

Uses of magnesium

Here are some uses of the magnesium element.

  • Magnesium is used as an alloying metal with aluminum and it gives light and strong metal which is used in car bodies, drinking cans, etc.
  • Some other lightweight alloys are also prepared by mixing magnesium with zinc, silicon and manganese.
  • Magnesium hydroxide is a compound of magnesium which is used in manufacturing fire resistant plastics.
  • Magnesium is also needed by the human body for biochemical reactions.
  • Magnesium is also used in fireworks and flares.

External resources:

  1. Magnesium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Magnesium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  2. Magnesium – Wikipedia. (2022, September 1). Magnesium – Wikipedia.
  3. Cotton, S. (2014, August 12). Magnesium oxide. Magnesium Oxide | Podcast | Chemistry World.
  4. P. (n.d.). Magnesium | Mg (Element) – PubChem. Magnesium | Mg (Element) – PubChem.
  5. It’s Elemental – The Element Magnesium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Magnesium.
  6. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  7. Atomic Weight of Magnesium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Magnesium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  8. Atomic Data for Magnesium (Mg). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Magnesium (Mg).
  9. Magnesium | Mg | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Magnesium | Mg | ChemSpider.
  10. Magnesium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Magnesium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey.
  12. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  13. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092.
  14. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.
  15. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  16. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  17. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259.
  18. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451.
  19. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  20. Zhang, Y., Evans, J. R. G., & Yang, S. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337.
  21. Possolo, A., van der Veen, A. M. H., Meija, J., & Hibbert, D. B. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.

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