Silicon element (Si) is in group 14 and period 3 of a periodic table. Silicon is in the p-block and it is classified as a metalloid on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to silicon which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Silicon element (Information Table)
- Silicon element in Periodic table
- Facts about Silicon
- Properties of Silicon
- Uses of Silicon
Silicon Element (Information Table)
The important data related to silicon element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of silicon||Reflective solid with bluish-tinged surface|
|Atomic number of silicon||14|
|Symbol of silicon||Si|
|Atomic mass of silicon||28.085 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in silicon||Protons: 14, Neutrons: 14, Electrons: 14|
|State of silicon (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of silicon in periodic table||14|
|Period number of silicon in periodic table||3|
|Block of silicon in periodic table||p-block|
|Category of silicon||Metalloids|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in silicon||2, 8, 4|
|Electron configuration of silicon||[Ne] 3s2 3p2|
|Orbital diagram of silicon|
|Valence electrons in silicon||4|
|Electronegativity of silicon (on pauling scale)||1.9|
|Atomic radius of silicon (van der Waals radius)||210 picometers|
|Density of silicon||2.33 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of silicon||8.152 eV|
|Main isotope of silicon||28Si|
|Melting point of silicon||1687 K or 1414 °C or 2577 °F|
|Boiling point of silicon||3538 K or 3265 °C or 5909 °F|
|Crystal structure of silicon||Diamond cubic|
|Discovery of silicon||By Jons Jacob Berzelius in 1823|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Silicon element in Periodic table
The Silicon element (Si) has the atomic number 14 and is located in group 14 and period 3. Silicon is a metalloid and it is classified as a carbon group element.
Facts about silicon
Here are a few interesting facts about silicon element.
- Silicon is the 2nd most abundant element present in the earth’s crust. The first is oxygen.
- Silicon is found from the earth’s crust as a compound with other elements.
- Most of the compounds present in the earth’s crust contain silicon in it. Because of this reason, 27% of the earth’s crust is silicon.
- Silicon is also present in the meteorites.
- Silicon is a semiconductor and its electrical conductivity increases with the increase in temperature.
- Silicon also helps in strengthening the plant cell wall.
- Silicosis is a disease that occurs by inhaling silicon dust.
Properties of silicon
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of silicon.
Physical properties of silicon
- Silicon is a solid metalloid having a shiny bluish-tinged surface.
- Silicon carbide (SiC) is a very hard material and its hardness is near to the hardness of diamond.
- Liquid silicon has higher density than solid silicon.
- The melting point and boiling point of silicon is 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively.
- Out of all the isotopes of silicon, the stable isotope is 28Si.
Chemical properties of silicon
- Silicon is a metalloid and hence its properties are similar to that of metals as well as nonmetals.
- Silicon is a metalloid and it can form compounds with metals as well as nonmetals.
- Silicon reacts with strong alkalis and forms silicates. During this reaction, the hydrogen gas is liberated.
Uses of silicon
Here are some uses of the silicon element.
- Because of the semiconducting properties of silicon, it is widely used in making solar cells, computer chips, and many other electronic devices.
- Silicon is used in making transistors and these transistors are used in many electronic devices from radio to iphones.
- Ceramics, glass and bricks contain silicon in it.
- Steel manufacturing plants also use silicon.
- Silicon carbide is very hard material and it is used in abrasives as well as cutting tools.