Silicon (Si) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

silicon element periodic table

Silicon element (Si) is in group 14 and period 3 of a periodic table. Silicon is in the p-block and it is classified as a metalloid on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to silicon which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Silicon Element (Information Table)

The important data related to silicon element is given in the table below.

Appearance of siliconReflective solid with bluish-tinged surface
Atomic number of silicon14
Symbol of siliconSi
Atomic mass of silicon28.085 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in siliconProtons: 14, Neutrons: 14, Electrons: 14
State of silicon (at STP)Solid
Group number of silicon in periodic table14
Period number of silicon in periodic table3
Block of silicon in periodic tablep-block
Category of siliconMetalloids
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in silicon2, 8, 4
Electron configuration of silicon[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Orbital diagram of siliconorbital diagram of silicon
Valence electrons in silicon4
Electronegativity of silicon (on pauling scale)1.9
Atomic radius of silicon (van der Waals radius)210 picometers
Density of silicon2.33 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of silicon8.152 eV
Main isotope of silicon28Si
Melting point of silicon1687 K or 1414 °C or 2577 °F
Boiling point of silicon3538 K or 3265 °C or 5909 °F
Crystal structure of siliconDiamond cubic
Discovery of siliconBy Jons Jacob Berzelius in 1823

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Silicon element in Periodic table

The Silicon element (Si) has the atomic number 14 and is located in group 14 and period 3. Silicon is a metalloid and it is classified as a carbon group element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about silicon

Here are a few interesting facts about silicon element.

  1. Silicon is the 2nd most abundant element present in the earth’s crust. The first is oxygen.
  2. Silicon is found from the earth’s crust as a compound with other elements.
  3. Most of the compounds present in the earth’s crust contain silicon in it. Because of this reason, 27% of the earth’s crust is silicon.
  4. Silicon is also present in the meteorites.
  5. Silicon is a semiconductor and its electrical conductivity increases with the increase in temperature.
  6. Silicon also helps in strengthening the plant cell wall.
  7. Silicosis is a disease that occurs by inhaling silicon dust.

Properties of silicon

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of silicon.

Physical properties of silicon

  • Silicon is a solid metalloid having a shiny bluish-tinged surface.
  • Silicon carbide (SiC) is a very hard material and its hardness is near to the hardness of diamond.
  • Liquid silicon has higher density than solid silicon.
  • The melting point and boiling point of silicon is 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively.
  • Out of all the isotopes of silicon, the stable isotope is 28Si.

Chemical properties of silicon

  • Silicon is a metalloid and hence its properties are similar to that of metals as well as nonmetals.
  • Silicon is a metalloid and it can form compounds with metals as well as nonmetals.
  • Silicon reacts with strong alkalis and forms silicates. During this reaction, the hydrogen gas is liberated.

Uses of silicon

Here are some uses of the silicon element.

  • Because of the semiconducting properties of silicon, it is widely used in making solar cells, computer chips, and many other electronic devices.
  • Silicon is used in making transistors and these transistors are used in many electronic devices from radio to iphones.
  • Ceramics, glass and bricks contain silicon in it.
  • Steel manufacturing plants also use silicon.
  • Silicon carbide is very hard material and it is used in abrasives as well as cutting tools.

External resources:

  1. Silicon – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Silicon – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  2. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  3. Atomic Weight of Silicon | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Silicon | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  4. Atomic Data for Silicon (Si). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Silicon (Si).
  5. Silicon Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Silicon Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey.
  7. Silicon – Wikipedia. (2019, August 22). Silicon – Wikipedia.
  8. It’s Elemental – The Element Silicon. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Silicon.
  9. P. (n.d.). Silicon | Si (Element) – PubChem. Silicon | Si (Element) – PubChem.
  10. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  11. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092.
  12. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.
  13. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  14. Zhang, Y., Evans, J. R. G., & Yang, S. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337.
  15. Possolo, A., van der Veen, A. M. H., Meija, J., & Hibbert, D. B. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.
  16. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  17. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259.
  18. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451.
  19. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.

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