Hydrogen (H) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

hydrogen element periodic table

Hydrogen element (H) is in group 1 and period 1 of a periodic table. Hydrogen is placed along with the alkali metals because it has similar electronic configuration as that of group 1 elements.

There is a lot more information related to hydrogen which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Hydrogen Element (Information Table)

The important data related to hydrogen element is given in the table below.

Appearance of hydrogenColorless gas
Atomic number of hydrogen1
Symbol of hydrogenH
Atomic mass of hydrogen1.008 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in hydrogenProtons: 1, Neutrons: 0, Electrons: 1
State of hydrogen (at STP)Gas
Group number of hydrogen in periodic table1
Period number of hydrogen in periodic table1
Block of hydrogen in periodic tables-block
Category of hydrogenOther nonmetals
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in hydrogen1 electron in 1st shell
Electron configuration of hydrogen1s1
Orbital diagram of hydrogenorbital diagram of hydrogen
Valence electrons in hydrogen1
Electronegativity of hydrogen (on pauling scale)2.2
Atomic radius of hydrogen (van der Waals radius)120 picometers
Density of hydrogen0.0898 g/L
1st ionization energy of hydrogen13.598 eV
Main isotope of hydrogen1H, 2H
Melting point of hydrogen13.99 K or -259.16 °C or -434.49 °F
Boiling point of hydrogen20.271 K or -252.87 °C or -423.18 °F
Crystal structure of hydrogenHexagonal
Discovery of hydrogenBy Henry Cavendish in 1766

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Hydrogen element in Periodic table

The Hydrogen element (H) has the atomic number 1 and is located in group 1 and period 1. Hydrogen is in gaseous state at STP and it is classified as other nonmetals element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about hydrogen

Here are a few interesting facts about hydrogen element.

  1. Out of all the 118 elements, the hydrogen element is the element that does not have neutrons.
  2. Hydrogen is the highly abundant element present in the universe, it is approximately 74%.
  3. As hydrogen is a light gas, it does not stay in the earth’s atmosphere.
  4. Hydrogen is present in all living beings. The water present in our body contains hydrogen in it (because the chemical formula of water is H2O).
  5. The atmosphere of stars contains hydrogen and helium in very large quantities.
  6. According to the research done by the scientists, it is believed that the hydrogen gas was produced during the big bang.

Properties of hydrogen

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of hydrogen.

Physical properties of hydrogen

  • Hydrogen is in gaseous state at STP and it is colorless, odorless and tasteless.
  • The atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.008 amu and it is 14.5 times lighter than air.
  • Hydrogen gas has the lowest density out of all the gases present on the periodic table.
  • The van der Waals atomic radius of a hydrogen atom is 120 picometers.
  • The melting point and boiling point of hydrogen is 13.99 K and 20.271 K respectively.

Chemical properties of hydrogen

  • Hydrogen is highly flammable and it catches fire very easily.
  • Hydrogen can easily form compounds with halogens like fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, etc. It also forms compounds with other nonmetals.
  • Hydrogen has the electron configuration of 1s1, which means that it can either gain one electron or lose one electron during a chemical reaction. If it loses an electron, then it will form H+ ion; and if it gains one electron, then it will form H ion.
  • Heating of the hydrogen gas can cause explosion or violent combustion.
  • The auto ignition temperature of hydrogen gas is 500 °C, that means the hydrogen gas ignites on its own at this temperature without any external spark or flame.

Uses of hydrogen

Here are some uses of the hydrogen element.

  • As hydrogen is the lightest gas, it is used in balloons and airships.
  • Hydrogen is also used in chemical industries in production of ammonia.
  • Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity.
  • The liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen are used as a cryogenic fuel in rockets.
  • Hydrogen is also used as a shielding gas in atomic hydrogen welding.

External resources:

  1. Hydrogen – Wikipedia. (2021, December 25). Hydrogen – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen
  2. Hydrogen – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Hydrogen – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/1/hydrogen
  3. P. (n.d.). Hydrogen | H (Element) – PubChem. Hydrogen | H (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Hydrogen
  4. It’s Elemental – The Element Hydrogen. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Hydrogen. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele001.html
  5. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. https://periodic.lanl.gov/1.shtml
  6. C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – HYDROGEN. (n.d.). C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – HYDROGEN. https://pubsapp.acs.org/cen/80th/hydrogen.html?
  7. HYDROGEN | H | ChemSpider. (n.d.). HYDROGEN | H | ChemSpider. http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.4515072.html?rid=7fc53701-2560-4028-aa47-f25c5d6fa653&page_num=0
  8. Atomic Data for Hydrogen (H ). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Hydrogen (H ). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/hydrogentable1.htm
  9. Atomic Weight of Hydrogen | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Hydrogen | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. https://ciaaw.org/hydrogen.htm
  10. The Chemistry of Hydrogen. (n.d.). The Chemistry of Hydrogen. https://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch10/hydrogen.php
  11. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17118
  12. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  13. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1800011
  14. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100785a001
  15. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  16. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-0703
  17. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5
  18. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  19. Zhang, Y., Evans, J. R. G., & Yang, S. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1021/je1011086
  20. Possolo, A., van der Veen, A. M. H., Meija, J., & Hibbert, D. B. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2016-0402

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