Hafnium element (Hf) is in group 4 and period 6 of a periodic table. Hafnium is in the d-block and it is classified as a transition element on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to hafnium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Hafnium element (Information Table)
- Hafnium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Hafnium
- Properties of Hafnium
- Uses of Hafnium
Hafnium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to hafnium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of hafnium||Gray metallic appearance|
|Atomic number of hafnium||72|
|Symbol of hafnium||Hf|
|Atomic mass of hafnium||178.49 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in hafnium||Protons: 72, Neutrons: 106, Electrons: 72|
|State of hafnium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of hafnium in periodic table||4|
|Period number of hafnium in periodic table||6|
|Block of hafnium in periodic table||d-block|
|Category of hafnium||Transition metal|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in hafnium||2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2|
|Electron configuration of hafnium||[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2|
|Orbital diagram of hafnium|
|Electronegativity of hafnium (on pauling scale)||1.3|
|Atomic radius of hafnium (van der Waals radius)||212 picometers|
|Density of hafnium||13.31 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of hafnium||6.825 eV|
|Main isotope of hafnium||180Hf|
|Melting point of hafnium||2506 K or 2233 °C or 4051 °F|
|Boiling point of hafnium||4876 K or 4603 °C or 8317 °F|
|Crystal structure of hafnium||Hexagonal Close Packing (HCP)|
|Discovery of hafnium||By George de Hevesy and Dirk Coster in 1922|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Hafnium element in Periodic table
The Hafnium element (Hf) has the atomic number 72 and is located in group 4 and period 6. Hafnium is a metal and it is classified as a transition element.
Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.
Facts about hafnium
Here are a few interesting facts about the hafnium element.
- George de Hevesy and Dirk Coster discovered the hafnium element in the year 1922.
- Hafnium was given its name from the Latin word “Hafnia”, which means “Copenhagen”. Copenhagen is a city located in Denmark.
- Hafnium metal can be extracted by refining zirconium.
- The earth’s crust contains hafnium in the concentration of 3.3 ppm by weight.
Properties of hafnium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of hafnium.
Physical properties of hafnium
- Hafnium has a gray metallic appearance.
- Hafnium has a density of 13.31 g/cm3 and its atomic mass is 178.49 amu.
- The melting point and boiling point of hafnium is 2506 K and 4876 K respectively.
- Hafnium has HCP crystal structure.
- There are many isotopes of hafnium, but out of those isotopes the most abundant isotope is 180Hf.
Chemical properties of hafnium
- Hafnium does not react with alkalis as well as acids (Exception: hafnium is reactive to hydrofluoric acid (HF)).
- The most common oxidation state of hafnium is +4, but it shows other oxidation states too.
- Hafnium can easily react with halogens like fluorine, chlorine, bromine, etc. During this reaction, it forms tetrahalides.
- It has also been found that hafnium reacts with oxygen, carbon, boron, nitrogen, silicon and sulfur at elevated temperatures.
Uses of hafnium
Here are some uses of the hafnium element.
- Hafnium is used in control rods in nuclear reactors, because it has a property to absorb neutrons.
- Hafnium carbide can resist higher temperatures. Because of this reason, it is used in metal melting furnaces.
- Hafnium is also used as an alloying element with other metals to get the desired properties.
- Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. https://periodic.lanl.gov/72.shtml
- Atomic Weight of Hafnium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Hafnium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. https://ciaaw.org/hafnium.htm
- Atomic Data for Hafnium (Hf). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Hafnium (Hf). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/hafniumtable1.htm
- Hafnium | Hf | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Hafnium | Hf | ChemSpider. http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.22422.html?rid=0b2960c8-6d43-4f3f-a4d6-a48c5e6feaa0&page_num=0
- Zirconium and Hafnium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Zirconium and Hafnium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. https://www.usgs.gov/centers/national-minerals-information-center/zirconium-and-hafnium-statistics-and-information
- C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – HAFNIUM. (n.d.). C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – HAFNIUM. https://pubsapp.acs.org/cen/80th/hafnium.html?
- Hafnium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Hafnium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/72/hafnium
- Hafnium – Wikipedia. (2021, November 12). Hafnium – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafnium
- It’s Elemental – The Element Hafnium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Hafnium. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele072.html
- P. (n.d.). Hafnium | Hf (Element) – PubChem. Hafnium | Hf (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Hafnium
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- Bedford, et al. (1996, April 1). Recommended values of temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a selected set of secondary reference points. Metrologia, 33(2), 133–154. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/33/2/3
- Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5
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