Thorium element (Th) is in period 7 of a periodic table. Thorium is in the f-block and it is classified as a lanthanide on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to thorium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Thorium element (Information Table)
- Thorium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Thorium
- Properties of Thorium
- Uses of Thorium
Thorium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to thorium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of thorium||Silvery white appearance|
|Atomic number of thorium||90|
|Symbol of thorium||Th|
|Atomic mass of thorium||232.04 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in thorium||Protons: 90, Neutrons: 142, Electrons: 90|
|State of thorium (at STP)||Solid|
|Period number of thorium in periodic table||7|
|Block of thorium in periodic table||f-block|
|Category of thorium||Inner transition metals|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in thorium||2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2|
|Electron configuration of thorium||[Rn] 6d2 7s2|
|Orbital diagram of thorium|
|Electronegativity of thorium (on pauling scale)||1.3|
|Atomic radius of thorium (van der Waals radius)||237 picometers|
|Density of thorium||11.725 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of thorium||6.08 eV|
|Main isotope of thorium||232Th|
|Melting point of thorium||2023 K or 1750 °C or 3182 °F|
|Boiling point of thorium||5061 K or 4788 °C or 8650 °F|
|Crystal structure of thorium||Face Centered Cubic (FCC)|
|Discovery of thorium||By Jons Jakob Berzelius in 1829|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Thorium element in Periodic table
The Thorium element (Th) has the atomic number 90 and is located in period 7. Thorium is a metal and it is classified as an actinide group element.
Facts about thorium
Here are a few interesting facts about thorium element.
- Jons Jakob Berzelius was the chemist who discovered thorium in the year 1829.
- Thorium was given its name from the name “Thor”, which is the name of Norse god of thunder.
- Thorium is around 6 ppm by weight in the earth’s crust.
- The main ores of thorium are thorite, thorianite and monazite. Majority of thorium is obtained from these ores.
- Australia, Canada, US, Russia and India are the major regions from where thorium is mined.
Properties of thorium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of thorium.
Physical properties of thorium
- Thorium has a silvery white appearance.
- The density of thorium is 11.725 g/cm3 and its atomic mass is 232.04 amu.
- There are many isotopes of thorium, but the most stable isotope is 232Th and it has a half-life of 14 billion years.
- Thorium has a FCC crystal structure.
- The melting point and boiling point of thorium is 2023 K and 5061 K respectively.
Chemical properties of thorium
- When thorium is kept open in the air, it starts tarnishing and forms a thin oxide layer on it.
- Thorium reacts with water and this chemical reaction is slow.
- Thorium gets dissolved in HCl.
- Thorium also reacts with elements like hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, etc.
- Thorium has many oxidation states, but the most common oxidation state is +4.
Uses of thorium
Here are some uses of the thorium element.
- Thorium metal is added to magnesium metal, which gives strength to magnesium.
- Thorium dioxide is used in manufacturing of glass to increase its refractive index.
- Thorium dioxide is also added to ceramics which increases its resistance against higher temperatures.
- Thorium and uranium are also responsible for the heat present in the earth’s crust.