Germanium element (Ge) is in group 14 and period 4 of a periodic table. Germanium is in the p-block and it is classified as a metalloid on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to germanium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Germanium element (Information Table)
- Germanium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Germanium
- Properties of Germanium
- Uses of Germanium
Germanium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to germanium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of germanium||Grayish white|
|Atomic number of germanium||32|
|Symbol of germanium||Ge|
|Atomic mass of germanium||72.630 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in germanium||Protons: 32, Neutrons: 41, Electrons: 32|
|State of germanium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of germanium in periodic table||14|
|Period number of germanium in periodic table||4|
|Block of germanium in periodic table||p-block|
|Category of germanium||Metalloids|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in germanium||2, 8, 18, 4|
|Electron configuration of germanium||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2|
|Orbital diagram of germanium|
|Valence electrons in germanium||4|
|Electronegativity of germanium (on pauling scale)||2.01|
|Atomic radius of germanium (van der Waals radius)||211 picometers|
|Density of germanium||5.323 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of germanium||7.9 eV|
|Main isotope of germanium||74Ge|
|Melting point of germanium||1211.40 K or 938.2 °C or 1720.8 °F|
|Boiling point of germanium||3106 K or 2833 °C or 5131 °F|
|Crystal structure of germanium||Diamond cubic|
|Discovery of germanium||By Clemens Winkler in 1886|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Germanium element in Periodic table
The Germanium element (Ge) has the atomic number 32 and is located in group 14 and period 4. Germanium is a metalloid and it is classified as a carbon group element.
Facts about germanium
Here are a few interesting facts about germanium element.
- The name Germanium was given on the basis of the Latin word “Germania” for Germany.
- The germanium element shows expansion on freezing, which is similar to the behavior of water on freezing.
- The existence of Germanium element was predicted by Mendeleev in 1869, and he named the predicted element as “eka-silicon”.
- The germanium present in the earth’s crust is around 1.5 ppm.
- Around 85% of the total germanium production is used in fiber optics.
- Germanium is largely produced in China.
- The semiconducting properties of germanium were discovered in 1945 and after this, the use of germanium has been increased.
Properties of germanium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of germanium.
Physical properties of germanium
- Germanium is a metalloid having a lustrous grayish white appearance.
- Germanium is solid at room temperature and a hard-brittle metalloid.
- Germanium has a diamond cubic crystal structure.
- The melting point and boiling point of germanium is 938.2 °C and 2833 °C.
- Germanium has semiconducting properties. The electrical conductivity of germanium increases as its temperature increases.
Chemical properties of germanium
- Germanium oxidizes in the air at the temperature of 250 °C.
- Germanium forms oxides like GeO2 and GeO, when it reacts with oxygen.
- Germanium reacts with other chalcogens to form compounds like GeS2, GeS, GeSe2, etc.
- Some other compounds of germanium like germane (GeH4) and a few halides like GeF4, GeI4, GeCl4 are also known.
- Germanium is not soluble in alkalis and other dilute acids.
- Germanium dissolves in concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.
- The most common oxidation state of germanium is +4. However, other oxidation states are also possible.
Uses of germanium
Here are some uses of the germanium element.
- Germanium is mostly used as a semiconductor in electronic devices.
- Germanium is also used in fiber optics cable.
- Wide angle camera lenses also used germanium.
- Germanium is also used in high efficiency solar panels.