Germanium (Ge) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

germanium element periodic table

Germanium element (Ge) is in group 14 and period 4 of a periodic table. Germanium is in the p-block and it is classified as a metalloid on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to germanium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Germanium Element (Information Table)

The important data related to germanium element is given in the table below.

Appearance of germaniumGrayish white
Atomic number of germanium32
Symbol of germaniumGe
Atomic mass of germanium72.630 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in germaniumProtons: 32, Neutrons: 41, Electrons: 32
State of germanium (at STP)Solid
Group number of germanium in periodic table14
Period number of germanium in periodic table4
Block of germanium in periodic tablep-block
Category of germaniumMetalloids
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in germanium2, 8, 18, 4
Electron configuration of germanium[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Orbital diagram of germaniumorbital diagram of germanium
Valence electrons in germanium4
Electronegativity of germanium (on pauling scale)2.01
Atomic radius of germanium (van der Waals radius)211 picometers
Density of germanium5.323 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of germanium7.9 eV
Main isotope of germanium74Ge
Melting point of germanium1211.40 K or 938.2 °C or 1720.8 °F
Boiling point of germanium3106 K or 2833 °C or 5131 °F
Crystal structure of germaniumDiamond cubic
Discovery of germaniumBy Clemens Winkler in 1886

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Germanium element in Periodic table

The Germanium element (Ge) has the atomic number 32 and is located in group 14 and period 4. Germanium is a metalloid and it is classified as a carbon group element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about germanium

Here are a few interesting facts about germanium element.

  1. The name Germanium was given on the basis of the Latin word “Germania” for Germany.
  2. The germanium element shows expansion on freezing, which is similar to the behavior of water on freezing.
  3. The existence of Germanium element was predicted by Mendeleev in 1869, and he named the predicted element as “eka-silicon”.
  4. The germanium present in the earth’s crust is around 1.5 ppm.
  5. Around 85% of the total germanium production is used in fiber optics.
  6. Germanium is largely produced in China.
  7. The semiconducting properties of germanium were discovered in 1945 and after this, the use of germanium has been increased.

Properties of germanium

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of germanium.

Physical properties of germanium

  • Germanium is a metalloid having a lustrous grayish white appearance.
  • Germanium is solid at room temperature and a hard-brittle metalloid.
  • Germanium has a diamond cubic crystal structure.
  • The melting point and boiling point of germanium is 938.2 °C and 2833 °C.
  • Germanium has semiconducting properties. The electrical conductivity of germanium increases as its temperature increases.

Chemical properties of germanium

  • Germanium oxidizes in the air at the temperature of 250 °C.
  • Germanium forms oxides like GeO2 and GeO, when it reacts with oxygen.
  • Germanium reacts with other chalcogens to form compounds like GeS2, GeS, GeSe2, etc.
  • Some other compounds of germanium like germane (GeH4) and a few halides like GeF4, GeI4, GeCl4 are also known.
  • Germanium is not soluble in alkalis and other dilute acids.
  • Germanium dissolves in concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.
  • The most common oxidation state of germanium is +4. However, other oxidation states are also possible.

Uses of germanium

Here are some uses of the germanium element.

  • Germanium is mostly used as a semiconductor in electronic devices.
  • Germanium is also used in fiber optics cable.
  • Wide angle camera lenses also used germanium.
  • Germanium is also used in high efficiency solar panels.

External resources:

  1. The New Element, Germanium. (n.d.). Scientific American.
  2. Rochow, E. G. (1963, March). THE UNIQUE ELEMENT, GERMANIUM. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 55(3), 32–35.
  3. Germanium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Germanium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  4. P. (n.d.). Germanium | Ge (Element) – PubChem. Germanium | Ge (Element) – PubChem.
  5. It’s Elemental – The Element Germanium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Germanium.
  6. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  7. Atomic Data for Germanium (Ge). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Germanium (Ge).
  8. Germanium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Germanium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey.
  9. Atomic Weight of Germanium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Germanium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  10. Prohaska, T., et al. (2022, May 1). Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 94(5), 573–600.
  11. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  12. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  13. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259.
  14. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451.
  15. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092.
  16. Zhang, et al. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337.

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