Germanium element (Ge) is in group 14 and period 4 of a periodic table. Germanium is in the p-block and it is classified as a metalloid on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to germanium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Germanium element (Information Table)
- Germanium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Germanium
- Properties of Germanium
- Uses of Germanium
Germanium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to germanium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of germanium||Grayish white|
|Atomic number of germanium||32|
|Symbol of germanium||Ge|
|Atomic mass of germanium||72.630 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in germanium||Protons: 32, Neutrons: 41, Electrons: 32|
|State of germanium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of germanium in periodic table||14|
|Period number of germanium in periodic table||4|
|Block of germanium in periodic table||p-block|
|Category of germanium||Metalloids|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in germanium||2, 8, 18, 4|
|Electron configuration of germanium||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2|
|Orbital diagram of germanium|
|Valence electrons in germanium||4|
|Electronegativity of germanium (on pauling scale)||2.01|
|Atomic radius of germanium (van der Waals radius)||211 picometers|
|Density of germanium||5.323 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of germanium||7.9 eV|
|Main isotope of germanium||74Ge|
|Melting point of germanium||1211.40 K or 938.2 °C or 1720.8 °F|
|Boiling point of germanium||3106 K or 2833 °C or 5131 °F|
|Crystal structure of germanium||Diamond cubic|
|Discovery of germanium||By Clemens Winkler in 1886|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Germanium element in Periodic table
The Germanium element (Ge) has the atomic number 32 and is located in group 14 and period 4. Germanium is a metalloid and it is classified as a carbon group element.
Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.
Facts about germanium
Here are a few interesting facts about germanium element.
- The name Germanium was given on the basis of the Latin word “Germania” for Germany.
- The germanium element shows expansion on freezing, which is similar to the behavior of water on freezing.
- The existence of Germanium element was predicted by Mendeleev in 1869, and he named the predicted element as “eka-silicon”.
- The germanium present in the earth’s crust is around 1.5 ppm.
- Around 85% of the total germanium production is used in fiber optics.
- Germanium is largely produced in China.
- The semiconducting properties of germanium were discovered in 1945 and after this, the use of germanium has been increased.
Properties of germanium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of germanium.
Physical properties of germanium
- Germanium is a metalloid having a lustrous grayish white appearance.
- Germanium is solid at room temperature and a hard-brittle metalloid.
- Germanium has a diamond cubic crystal structure.
- The melting point and boiling point of germanium is 938.2 °C and 2833 °C.
- Germanium has semiconducting properties. The electrical conductivity of germanium increases as its temperature increases.
Chemical properties of germanium
- Germanium oxidizes in the air at the temperature of 250 °C.
- Germanium forms oxides like GeO2 and GeO, when it reacts with oxygen.
- Germanium reacts with other chalcogens to form compounds like GeS2, GeS, GeSe2, etc.
- Some other compounds of germanium like germane (GeH4) and a few halides like GeF4, GeI4, GeCl4 are also known.
- Germanium is not soluble in alkalis and other dilute acids.
- Germanium dissolves in concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.
- The most common oxidation state of germanium is +4. However, other oxidation states are also possible.
Uses of germanium
Here are some uses of the germanium element.
- Germanium is mostly used as a semiconductor in electronic devices.
- Germanium is also used in fiber optics cable.
- Wide angle camera lenses also used germanium.
- Germanium is also used in high efficiency solar panels.
- The New Element, Germanium. (n.d.). Scientific American. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican11271886-9088bsupp
- Rochow, E. G. (1963, March). THE UNIQUE ELEMENT, GERMANIUM. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 55(3), 32–35. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50639a007
- Germanium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Germanium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/32/germanium
- P. (n.d.). Germanium | Ge (Element) – PubChem. Germanium | Ge (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Germanium
- It’s Elemental – The Element Germanium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Germanium. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele032.html
- Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. https://periodic.lanl.gov/32.shtml
- Atomic Data for Germanium (Ge). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Germanium (Ge). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/germaniumtable1.htm
- Germanium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Germanium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. https://www.usgs.gov/centers/national-minerals-information-center/germanium-statistics-and-information
- Atomic Weight of Germanium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Germanium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. https://ciaaw.org/germanium.htm
- Prohaska, T., et al. (2022, May 1). Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 94(5), 573–600. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2019-0603
- Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17118
- Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
- Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1800011
- Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100785a001
- Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-0703
- Zhang, et al. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1021/je1011086
Jay is an educator and has helped more than 100,000 students in their studies by providing simple and easy explanations on different science-related topics. With a desire to make learning accessible for everyone, he founded Knords Learning, an online chemistry learning platform that provides students with easily understandable explanations.
Read more about our Editorial process.