Lead (Pb) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

lead element periodic table

Lead element (Pb) is in group 14 and period 6 of a periodic table. Lead is in the p-block and it is classified as a post-transition element on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to lead which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Lead Element (Information Table)

The important data related to lead element is given in the table below.

Appearance of leadMetallic-gray
Atomic number of lead82
Symbol of leadPb
Atomic mass of lead207.2 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in leadProtons: 82, Neutrons: 125, Electrons: 82
State of lead (at STP)Solid
Group number of lead in periodic table14
Period number of lead in periodic table6
Block of lead in periodic tablep-block
Category of leadPost transition element (carbon group)
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in lead2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Electron configuration of lead[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Orbital diagram of leadorbital diagram of lead
Valence electrons in lead4
Electronegativity of lead (on pauling scale)2.33
Atomic radius of lead (van der Waals radius)202 picometers
Density of lead11.34 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of lead7.417 eV
Main isotope of lead208Pb
Melting point of lead600.6 K or 327.4 °C or 621.4 °F
Boiling point of lead2022 K or 1749 °C or 3180 °F
Crystal structure of leadFace Centered Cubic (FCC)

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Lead element in Periodic table

The Lead element (Pb) has the atomic number 82 and is located in group 14 and period 6. Lead is a metal and it is classified as a post-transition element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about lead

Here are a few interesting facts about lead element.

  1. The earth’s crust has around 114 ppm (by weight) of lead.
  2. Lead has been discovered since ancient times.
  3. More lead in the human body can affect the kidneys, heart, intestines, as well as nervous system.
  4. Lead sulfide (PbS) is the main ore of lead and majority of lead is obtained from this ore.

Properties of lead

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of lead.

Physical properties of lead

  • Lead has a silvery gray metallic appearance.
  • Lead is not a good conductor of electricity.
  • Lead is malleable and ductile metal.
  • Lead has many isotopes and out of those isotopes, the most abundant isotope is 208Pb.
  • Lead has FCC crystal structure.
  • The melting point and boiling point of lead is 600.6 K and 2022 K respectively.

Chemical properties of lead

  • Lead reacts with the atmospheric oxygen and forms a gray oxide layer on it.
  • The most common oxidation states of lead are +2 and +4.
  • Lead has an electronegativity of 2.33 on the pauling’s scale.
  • The electron configuration of lead is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. This shows that the last electron enters the p-orbital, and hence it is a p-block element.

Uses of lead

Here are some uses of the lead element.

  • Majority of lead is used in manufacturing of lead batteries.
  • Lead is used in manufacturing of bullets as well as radiation shields.
  • Lead metal was used in plumbing works. But now its use has been stopped due to the toxicity of lead.
  • Lead is also used in the covering materials used for cables.

External resources:

  1. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100785a001
  2. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-0703
  3. Zhang, et al. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1021/je1011086
  4. Lead – Wikipedia. (2021, November 5). Lead – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead
  5. Lead – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Lead – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/82/lead
  6. P. (n.d.). Lead | Pb (Element) – PubChem. Lead | Pb (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Lead
  7. It’s Elemental – The Element Lead. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Lead. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele082.html
  8. Learn about Lead | US EPA. (2013, February 12). US EPA. https://www.epa.gov/lead/learn-about-lead
  9. Weis, D. (2017, February 1). Lead Isotopes. Lead Isotopes | SpringerLink. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39193-9_293-1
  10. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. https://periodic.lanl.gov/82.shtml
  11. Atomic Data for Lead (Pb). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Lead (Pb). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/leadtable1.htm
  12. Lead | Pb | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Lead | Pb | ChemSpider. http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.4509317.html?rid=6928092d-3ca8-4d02-8167-cd1a375f1af5
  13. Lead Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Lead Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. https://www.usgs.gov/centers/national-minerals-information-center/lead-statistics-and-information
  14. Prohaska, T., et al. (2022, May 1). Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 94(5), 573–600. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2019-0603
  15. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17118
  16. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  17. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1800011

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