Zirconium (Zr) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

zirconium element periodic table

Zirconium element (Zr) is in group 4 and period 5 of a periodic table. Zirconium is in the d-block and it is classified as a transition element on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to zirconium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Zirconium Element (Information Table)

The important data related to zirconium element is given in the table below.

Appearance of zirconiumSilvery white metallic
Atomic number of zirconium40
Symbol of zirconiumZr
Atomic mass of zirconium91.224 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in zirconiumProtons: 40, Neutrons: 5, Electrons: 40
State of zirconium (at STP)Solid
Group number of zirconium in periodic table4
Period number of zirconium in periodic table5
Block of zirconium in periodic tabled-block
Category of zirconiumTransition metal
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in zirconium2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Electron configuration of zirconium[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Orbital diagram of zirconiumorbital diagram of zirconium
Electronegativity of zirconium (on pauling scale)1.33
Atomic radius of zirconium (van der Waals radius)186 picometers
Density of zirconium6.511 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of zirconium6.634 eV
Main isotope of zirconium90Zr
Melting point of zirconium2128 K or 1855 °C or 3371 °F
Boiling point of zirconium4650 K or 4377 °C or 7911 °F
Crystal structure of zirconiumHexagonal Close Packing (HCP)
Discovery of zirconiumBy Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Zirconium element in Periodic table

The Zirconium element (Zr) has the atomic number 40 and is located in group 4 and period 5. Zirconium is a metal and it is classified as a transition element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about zirconium

Here are a few interesting facts about zirconium element.

  1. Zirconium was given its name from the Persian word “Zargun” which means gold color.
  2. Zirconium was discovered by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in the year 1789 in Berlin. (The zirconium was discovered from zirconium silicate in Berlin, and this sample was taken from Sri Lanka).
  3. The concentration of zirconium in the earth’s crust is around 165 ppm by weight.
  4. Around 7000 tons of zirconium is produced annually in the entire world.
  5. Australia and South Africa are the leading producers of Zirconium in the world.
  6. Australia produces around 58% of the total zirconium in the world.
  7. In early ages, zirconium was used in some decorative items as well as in jewelry.
  8. Zirconium is also present in the sun as well as meteorites.

Properties of zirconium

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of zirconium.

Physical properties of zirconium

  • Zirconium is a solid metal and it has a silvery white appearance.
  • Zirconium is ductile as well as malleable metal. Hence it can be drawn into thin wires and sheets.
  • There are many isotopes of zirconium (including natural isotopes and radioactive isotopes). Out of these isotopes, the most abundant isotope is 90Zr, whose abundance is around 51%.
  • The melting point and boiling point of zirconium metal is 2128 K and 4650 K respectively.

Chemical properties of zirconium

  • The electronic configuration of zirconium is [Kr] 4d2 5s2 and it has incomplete d-orbitals.
  • Zirconium has anti-corrosive properties and hence it is used in manufacturing of surgical instruments as well as in some bulb filaments.
  • The powdered zirconium is flammable.

Uses of zirconium

Here are some uses of the zirconium element.

  • Zirconium is used as an alloying metal specially in the making of steel.
  • Zircaloy (that contains zirconium metal) is used in nuclear applications like cladding of nuclear fuel, etc.
  • Zirconium has been used as a gemstone as it has a similar appearance as that of diamonds.
  • Zirconia is an oxide that contains zirconium metal in it. This zirconia has a property to resist high temperatures, hence it is used in crucibles.
  • Zirconium may help in treating cancer. The research is still going on regarding this.

External resources:

  1. Zirconium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Zirconium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/40/zirconium
  2. Zhang, et al. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1021/je1011086
  3. Prohaska, T., et al. (2022, May 1). Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 94(5), 573–600. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2019-0603
  4. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17118
  5. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  6. Zirconium – Wikipedia. (2007, December 10). Zirconium – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zirconium
  7. P. (n.d.). Zirconium | Zr (Element) – PubChem. Zirconium | Zr (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Zirconium
  8. It’s Elemental – The Element Zirconium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Zirconium. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele040.html
  9. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. https://periodic.lanl.gov/40.shtml
  10. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1800011
  11. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100785a001
  12. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2015-0703
  13. Atomic Weight of Zirconium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Zirconium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. https://ciaaw.org/zirconium.htm
  14. Atomic Data for Zirconium (Zr). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Zirconium (Zr). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/zirconiumtable1.htm
  15. Zirconium and Hafnium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Zirconium and Hafnium Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. https://www.usgs.gov/centers/national-minerals-information-center/zirconium-and-hafnium-statistics-and-information
  16. C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – ZIRCONIUM. (n.d.). C&EN: IT’S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE – ZIRCONIUM. https://pubsapp.acs.org/cen/80th/zirconium.html?

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