Scandium (Sc) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

scandium element periodic table

Scandium element (Sc) is in group 3 and period 4 of a periodic table. Scandium is in the d-block and it is classified as a transition element on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to scandium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Scandium Element (Information Table)

The important data related to scandium element is given in the table below.

Appearance of scandiumSilvery white
Atomic number of scandium21
Symbol of scandiumSc
Atomic mass of scandium44.956 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in scandiumProtons: 21, Neutrons: 24, Electrons: 21
State of scandium (at STP)Solid
Group number of scandium in periodic table3
Period number of scandium in periodic table4
Block of scandium in periodic tablep-block
Category of scandiumTransition metal
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in scandium2, 8, 9, 2
Electron configuration of scandium[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Orbital diagram of scandiumorbital diagram of scandium
Valence electrons in scandium2
Electronegativity of scandium (on pauling scale)1.36
Atomic radius of scandium (van der Waals radius)211 picometers
Density of scandium2.985 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of scandium6.56 eV
Main isotope of scandium45Sc
Melting point of scandium1814 K or 1541 °C or 2806 °F
Boiling point of scandium3109 K or 2836 °C or 5136 °F
Crystal structure of scandiumHexagonal closed packing
Discovery of scandiumBy Lars Frederik Nilson in 1879

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Scandium element in Periodic table

The Scandium element (Sc) has the atomic number 21 and is located in group 3 and period 4. Scandium is a metal and it is classified as a transition element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about Scandium

Here are a few interesting facts about scandium element.

  1. Scandium is classified as a transition metal, but it is also a rare earth metal as it is evenly spread on the earth and it is difficult to find the scandium ores all at one place on the earth.
  2. The Scandium element was predicted by Mendeleev in 1869 and he named the element as eka-boron.
  3. Scandium is a light metal (like aluminum) but it has a higher melting point than aluminum. The melting point of scandium is 660 °C, while that of aluminum is 1541 °C.
  4. The abundance of scandium in the earth’s crust is around 18 to 25 ppm.
  5. Scandium is the 35th most abundant element in the earth’s crust.
  6. The amount of scandium is more on the moon as well as on the sun, as compared to the amount on the earth.

Properties of scandium

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of scandium.

Physical properties of scandium

  • Scandium is a moderately soft metal having a silvery white appearance.
  • The atomic radius of the scandium atom is 211 picometers.
  • The density of scandium is 2.985 g/cm3, which is approximately 3 times that of water.

Chemical properties of scandium

  • When scandium is kept open in air, it reacts with oxygen and forms Sc2O3.
  • Scandium has many isotopes, but the most stable isotope is 45Sc.
  • Scandium can easily form compounds like halides, oxides and hydroxides.
  • Scandium can dissolve slowly in most of the dilute acids.

Uses of scandium

Here are some uses of the scandium element.

  • Scandium is mainly used in aluminum-scandium alloys that are used in components of aerospace industries.
  • Aluminum-scandium alloys are also used in sports equipment like baseball bats, bicycle frames, tent poles, etc.
  • 46Sc is a radioactive isotope of scandium which is used as a tracing agent in oil refineries.

External resources:

  1. It’s Elemental – The Element Scandium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Scandium.
  2. P. (n.d.). Scandium | Sc (Element) – PubChem. Scandium | Sc (Element) – PubChem.
  4. Scandium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Scandium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  5. Atomic Weight of Scandium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Scandium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  6. Atomic Data for Scandium (Sc). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Scandium (Sc).
  8. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  9. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259.
  10. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451.
  11. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092.
  12. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.
  13. Zhang, Y., Evans, J. R. G., & Yang, S. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337.
  14. Possolo, A., van der Veen, A. M. H., Meija, J., & Hibbert, D. B. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.

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