Niobium (Nb) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

niobium element periodic table

Niobium element (Nb) is in group 5 and period 5 of a periodic table. Niobium is in the d-block and it is classified as a transition element on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to niobium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Niobium Element (Information Table)

The important data related to niobium element is given in the table below.

Appearance of niobiumMetallic gray
Atomic number of niobium41
Symbol of niobiumNb
Atomic mass of niobium92.906 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in niobiumProtons: 41, Neutrons: 52, Electrons: 41
State of niobium (at STP)Solid
Group number of niobium in periodic table5
Period number of niobium in periodic table5
Block of niobium in periodic tabled-block
Category of niobiumTransition metal
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in niobium2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Electron configuration of niobium[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Orbital diagram of niobiumorbital diagram of niobium
Electronegativity of niobium (on pauling scale)1.6
Atomic radius of niobium (van der Waals radius)207 picometers
Density of niobium8.57 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of niobium6.759 eV
Main isotope of niobium93Nb
Melting point of niobium2750 K or 2477 °C or 4491 °F
Boiling point of niobium5017 K or 4744 °C or 8571 °F
Crystal structure of niobiumBody Centered Cubic (BCC)
Discovery of niobiumBy Charles Hatchett in 1801

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Niobium element in Periodic table

The Niobium element (Nb) has the atomic number 41 and is located in group 5 and period 5. Niobium is a metal and it is classified as a transition element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about niobium

Here are a few interesting facts about niobium element.

  1. The Niobium element (Nb) was previously named as Columbium (Cb).
  2. Niobium was discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801.
  3. Majority of the niobium (approximately 80%) is used in manufacturing of steel.
  4. The name “Niobium” came from the Greek goddess “Niobe” (daughter of king Tantalus).
  5. Niobium is the 34th most common element present in the earth’s crust.
  6. Most of the niobium which is available today comes from Brazil and Canada.

Properties of niobium

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of niobium.

Physical properties of niobium

  • Niobium is a metal having a metallic gray appearance.
  • The pure niobium metal is somewhat soft and ductile, but the impurities present in it makes it harder.
  • Niobium is a crystalline and ductile transition metal.
  • Niobium has a BCC (Body Centered Cubic) crystal structure.
  • At cryogenic temperatures, the niobium metal shows the properties of a superconductor.

Chemical properties of niobium

  • When niobium is kept open in air for a longer time, it forms a bluish tinge.
  • There are many isotopes of niobium, but the main isotope is 93Nb and it is present in the earth’s crust.
  • Niobium is a transition metal and has an electronic configuration [Kr] 4d4 5s1.
  • Niobium is resistant to alkalis as well as some acids like sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and phosphoric acid.
  • Niobium reacts with oxygen to form oxides.
  • Niobium reacts with many other nonmetals at higher temperatures.

Uses of niobium

Here are some uses of the niobium element.

  • Niobium is largely used in alloys, which are used mostly in gas pipelines.
  • Niobium is added to steel in very small proportions, which gives improved properties like toughness, strength, weldability as well as formability.
  • Niobium is also used in superconducting materials.
  • Niobium is also used in making super alloys that are used in gas turbines, jet engine components, combustion equipment, etc.

External resources:

  1. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  2. Possolo, et al. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.
  3. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  4. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  5. Electronic structure of the elements. (2000, March). The European Physical Journal C, 15(1–4), 78–79.
  6. Atomic Weight of Niobium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Niobium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  7. Atomic Data for Niobium (Nb). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Niobium (Nb).
  8. Niobium and Tantalum Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Niobium and Tantalum Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey.
  9. Niobium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Niobium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  10. Niobium – Wikipedia. (2016, July 15). Niobium – Wikipedia.
  11. It’s Elemental – The Element Niobium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Niobium.
  12. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  13. Bedford, et al. (1996, April 1). Recommended values of temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a selected set of secondary reference points. Metrologia, 33(2), 133–154.
  14. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.
  15. P. (n.d.). Niobium | Nb (Element) – PubChem. Niobium | Nb (Element) – PubChem.
  16. Tarselli, M. A. (2015, January 23). Subtle niobium. Nature Chemistry, 7(2), 180–180.

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