Niobium element (Nb) is in group 5 and period 5 of a periodic table. Niobium is in the d-block and it is classified as a transition element on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to niobium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Niobium element (Information Table)
- Niobium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Niobium
- Properties of Niobium
- Uses of Niobium
Niobium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to niobium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of niobium||Metallic gray|
|Atomic number of niobium||41|
|Symbol of niobium||Nb|
|Atomic mass of niobium||92.906 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in niobium||Protons: 41, Neutrons: 52, Electrons: 41|
|State of niobium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of niobium in periodic table||5|
|Period number of niobium in periodic table||5|
|Block of niobium in periodic table||d-block|
|Category of niobium||Transition metal|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in niobium||2, 8, 18, 12, 1|
|Electron configuration of niobium||[Kr] 4d4 5s1|
|Orbital diagram of niobium|
|Electronegativity of niobium (on pauling scale)||1.6|
|Atomic radius of niobium (van der Waals radius)||207 picometers|
|Density of niobium||8.57 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of niobium||6.759 eV|
|Main isotope of niobium||93Nb|
|Melting point of niobium||2750 K or 2477 °C or 4491 °F|
|Boiling point of niobium||5017 K or 4744 °C or 8571 °F|
|Crystal structure of niobium||Body Centered Cubic (BCC)|
|Discovery of niobium||By Charles Hatchett in 1801|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Niobium element in Periodic table
The Niobium element (Nb) has the atomic number 41 and is located in group 5 and period 5. Niobium is a metal and it is classified as a transition element.
Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.
Facts about niobium
Here are a few interesting facts about niobium element.
- The Niobium element (Nb) was previously named as Columbium (Cb).
- Niobium was discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801.
- Majority of the niobium (approximately 80%) is used in manufacturing of steel.
- The name “Niobium” came from the Greek goddess “Niobe” (daughter of king Tantalus).
- Niobium is the 34th most common element present in the earth’s crust.
- Most of the niobium which is available today comes from Brazil and Canada.
Properties of niobium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of niobium.
Physical properties of niobium
- Niobium is a metal having a metallic gray appearance.
- The pure niobium metal is somewhat soft and ductile, but the impurities present in it makes it harder.
- Niobium is a crystalline and ductile transition metal.
- Niobium has a BCC (Body Centered Cubic) crystal structure.
- At cryogenic temperatures, the niobium metal shows the properties of a superconductor.
Chemical properties of niobium
- When niobium is kept open in air for a longer time, it forms a bluish tinge.
- There are many isotopes of niobium, but the main isotope is 93Nb and it is present in the earth’s crust.
- Niobium is a transition metal and has an electronic configuration [Kr] 4d4 5s1.
- Niobium is resistant to alkalis as well as some acids like sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and phosphoric acid.
- Niobium reacts with oxygen to form oxides.
- Niobium reacts with many other nonmetals at higher temperatures.
Uses of niobium
Here are some uses of the niobium element.
- Niobium is largely used in alloys, which are used mostly in gas pipelines.
- Niobium is added to steel in very small proportions, which gives improved properties like toughness, strength, weldability as well as formability.
- Niobium is also used in superconducting materials.
- Niobium is also used in making super alloys that are used in gas turbines, jet engine components, combustion equipment, etc.
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- Atomic Weight of Niobium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Niobium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. https://ciaaw.org/niobium.htm
- Atomic Data for Niobium (Nb). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Niobium (Nb). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/niobiumtable1.htm
- Niobium and Tantalum Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Niobium and Tantalum Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. https://www.usgs.gov/centers/national-minerals-information-center/niobium-and-tantalum-statistics-and-information
- Niobium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Niobium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/41/niobium
- Niobium – Wikipedia. (2016, July 15). Niobium – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niobium
- It’s Elemental – The Element Niobium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Niobium. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele041.html
- James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
- Bedford, et al. (1996, April 1). Recommended values of temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a selected set of secondary reference points. Metrologia, 33(2), 133–154. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/33/2/3
- Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5
- P. (n.d.). Niobium | Nb (Element) – PubChem. Niobium | Nb (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Niobium
- Tarselli, M. A. (2015, January 23). Subtle niobium. Nature Chemistry, 7(2), 180–180. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2164
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