Ruthenium element (Ru) is in group 8 and period 5 of a periodic table. Ruthenium is in the d-block and it is classified as a transition element on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to ruthenium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Ruthenium element (Information Table)
- Ruthenium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Ruthenium
- Properties of Ruthenium
- Uses of Ruthenium
Ruthenium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to ruthenium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of ruthenium||Silvery gray metallic appearance|
|Atomic number of ruthenium||44|
|Symbol of ruthenium||Ru|
|Atomic mass of ruthenium||101.07 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in ruthenium||Protons: 44, Neutrons: 57, Electrons: 44|
|State of ruthenium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of ruthenium in periodic table||8|
|Period number of ruthenium in periodic table||5|
|Block of ruthenium in periodic table||d-block|
|Category of ruthenium||Transition metal|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in ruthenium||2, 8, 18, 15, 1|
|Electron configuration of ruthenium||[Kr] 4d7 5s1|
|Orbital diagram of ruthenium|
|Electronegativity of ruthenium (on pauling scale)||2.2|
|Atomic radius of ruthenium (van der Waals radius)||207 picometers|
|Density of ruthenium||12.37 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of ruthenium||7.361 eV|
|Main isotope of ruthenium||102Ru|
|Melting point of ruthenium||2607 K or 2334 °C or 4233 °F|
|Boiling point of ruthenium||4423 K or 4150 °C or 7502 °F|
|Crystal structure of ruthenium||Hexagonal Close Packing (HCP)|
|Discovery of ruthenium||By Karl Ernst Claus in 1844|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Ruthenium element in Periodic table
The Ruthenium element (Ru) has the atomic number 44 and is located in group 8 and period 5. Ruthenium is a metal and it is classified as a transition element.
Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.
Facts about ruthenium
Here are a few interesting facts about ruthenium element.
- The name “Ruthenium” came from the word “Ruthenia” which is a Latin word for Russia.
- Ruthenium was discovered by Karl Ernst Claus in 1844.
- The concentration of ruthenium in the earth’s crust is around 1 part per billion by weight (which is very less). And its concentration in the solar system is believed to be 5 parts per billion by weight.
- Ruthenium is mainly obtained from the mineral deposits from the Ural mountain in North and South America. It is also found from the pyroxenite deposits of South Africa (source).
- Ruthenium can also be extracted from the radioactive waste.
Properties of ruthenium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of ruthenium.
Physical properties of ruthenium
- Ruthenium is a metal with a silvery gray metallic appearance.
- Ruthenium has an atomic mass 101.07 u and its density is 12.37 g/cm3.
- The melting point and boiling point of ruthenium is 2607 K and 4423 K respectively.
- Ruthenium has HCP crystal structure.
- Ruthenium has many isotopes, and out of these isotopes, the most abundant isotope is 102Ru. It has an abundance of around 31.5%.
Chemical properties of ruthenium
- The electronic configuration of ruthenium is [Kr] 4d7 5s1 and it is a transition metal as it has incomplete d-orbitals.
- The corrosion resistance property of titanium can be improved by adding only 0.1% ruthenium to it.
- As it is a transition metal, it has many oxidation states like +2, +3 as well as +4.
- Ruthenium metal does not tarnish if kept open in the air at room temperature.
- Ruthenium metal shows a chemical reaction with halogens and hydroxides.
Uses of ruthenium
Here are some uses of the ruthenium element.
- Ruthenium is used as an alloy with other elements to improve properties like corrosion resistance.
- Ruthenium-molybdenum alloy behaved like a superconductor at a very low temperature of 10.6 K.
- In order to increase the hardness of metals like platinum and palladium, ruthenium is added to them.
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- Bedford, et al. (1996, April 1). Recommended values of temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a selected set of secondary reference points. Metrologia, 33(2), 133–154. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/33/2/3
- Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5
- Ruthenium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Ruthenium – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table. https://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/44/ruthenium
- Ruthenium – Wikipedia. (2007, December 10). Ruthenium – Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenium
- P. (n.d.). Ruthenium | Ru (Element) – PubChem. Ruthenium | Ru (Element) – PubChem. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/element/Ruthenium
- Possolo, et al. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2016-0402
- Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
- Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17118
- Electronic structure of the elements. (2000, March). The European Physical Journal C, 15(1–4), 78–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02683401
- It’s Elemental – The Element Ruthenium. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Ruthenium. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele044.html
- Higgins, S. (2010, November 23). Regarding ruthenium. Nature Chemistry, 2(12), 1100–1100. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.917
- Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. https://periodic.lanl.gov/44.shtml
- Atomic Weight of Ruthenium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Ruthenium | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. https://ciaaw.org/ruthenium.htm
- Atomic Data for Ruthenium (Ru). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Ruthenium (Ru). https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Handbook/Tables/rutheniumtable1.htm
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