Gold (Au) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

gold element periodic table

Gold element (Au) is in group 11 and period 6 of a periodic table. Gold is in the d-block and it is classified as a transition element on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to gold which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Gold Element (Information Table)

The important data related to gold element is given in the table below.

Appearance of goldYellow shiny metallic luster
Atomic number of gold79
Symbol of goldAu
Atomic mass of gold196.97 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in goldProtons: 79, Neutrons: 118, Electrons: 79
State of gold (at STP)Solid
Group number of gold in periodic table11
Period number of gold in periodic table6
Block of gold in periodic tabled-block
Category of goldTransition metal
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in gold2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Electron configuration of gold[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Orbital diagram of goldorbital diagram of gold
Electronegativity of gold (on pauling scale)2.54
Atomic radius of gold (van der Waals radius)166 picometers
Density of gold19.3 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of gold9.226 eV
Main isotope of gold197Au
Melting point of gold1337 K or 1064 °C or 1947 °F
Boiling point of gold3243 K or 2970 °C or 5378 °F
Crystal structure of goldFace Centered Cubic (FCC)

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Gold element in Periodic table

The Gold element (Au) has the atomic number 79 and is located in group 11 and period 6. Gold is a metal and it is classified as a transition element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about gold

Here are a few interesting facts about the gold element.

  1. The name gold came from the Latin word “aurum”. (Aurum is the Latin word for gold).
  2. Gold is a very ancient element and it has been known since ancient times.
  3. South Africa produces around 2/3rd of the total gold which makes it a leading producer of gold in the world.
  4. Gold is available from earth’s crust as well as ocean.
  5. Around 78% of the total gold is used in jewelry.

Properties of gold

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of gold.

Physical properties of gold

  • Gold is the only metal that has a yellowish lustrous surface.
  • Gold metal can also conduct heat and electricity.
  • Gold is ductile and malleable metal.
  • Gold has FCC crystal structure.
  • The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3 and its atomic mass is 196.97 amu.
  • The melting point and boiling point of gold is 1337 K and 3243 K respectively.

Chemical properties of gold

  • Gold is highly resistive metal and it does not corrode.
  • The common oxidation states of gold are +1 and +3.
  • Gold is chemically inert to most of the acids, but it dissolves in aqua regia.
  • The powdered form of gold reacts with chlorine to form AuCl3. This reaction takes place at 180 °C.
  • At higher temperatures, gold shows chemical reaction with highly reactive element fluorine and forms gold (III) fluoride.

Uses of gold

Here are some uses of the gold element.

  • Most of the gold (around 78%) is used in making ornaments and jewelry.
  • In ancient times, gold coins were used as a currency.
  • Medals and trophies are also made of gold metal.
  • Gold is nonallergic and hence it is also used in dentistry.
  • Gold can conduct very small electric currents and hence it is also used in some electrical devices.

External resources:

  1. Possolo, et al. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.
  2. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  3. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  4. Electronic structure of the elements. (2000, March). The European Physical Journal C, 15(1–4), 78–79.
  5. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  6. Bedford, et al. (1996, April 1). Recommended values of temperature on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for a selected set of secondary reference points. Metrologia, 33(2), 133–154.
  7. Gold – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Gold – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  8. Gold – Wikipedia. (2022, May 1). Gold – Wikipedia.
  9. P. (n.d.). Gold | Au (Element) – PubChem. Gold | Au (Element) – PubChem.
  10. It’s Elemental – The Element Gold. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Gold.
  11. Atomic Weight of Gold | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Gold | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  12. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  13. Gold | Au | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Gold | Au | ChemSpider.
  14. Gold Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Gold Statistics and Information | U.S. Geological Survey.
  16. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.

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