Carbon (C) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

carbon element periodic table

Carbon element (C) is in group 14 and period 2 of a periodic table. Carbon is in the p-block and it is classified as a Nonmetal on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to carbon which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Carbon Element (Information Table)

The important data related to carbon element is given in the table below.

Appearance of carbonGraphite has shiny black appearance, Diamond has clear appearance
Atomic number of carbon6
Symbol of carbonC
Atomic mass of carbon12.011 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in carbonProtons: 6, Neutrons: 6, Electrons: 6
State of carbon (at STP)Solid
Group number of carbon in periodic table14
Period number of carbon in periodic table2
Block of carbon in periodic tablep-block
Category of carbonNonmetals
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in carbon2, 4
Electron configuration of carbon[He] 2s2 2p2
Orbital diagram of carbonorbital diagram of carbon
Valence electrons in carbon4
Electronegativity of carbon (on pauling scale)2.55
Atomic radius of carbon (van der Waals radius)170 picometers
Density of carbonGraphite: 2.267 g/cm3
Diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of carbon17.423 eV
Main isotopes of carbon12C, 13C, 14C
Crystal structure of carbonHexagonal

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Carbon element in Periodic table

The Carbon element (C) has the atomic number 6 and is located in group 14 and period 2. Carbon is a nonmetal and it is classified as a carbon group element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about carbon

Here are a few interesting facts about carbon element.

  1. Carbon is an element that can form many compounds with other elements. Hence carbon is also known as a king of elements.
  2. Carbon is also present in our body in the form of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid.
  3. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon which is the hardest material known till date.
  4. The graphite is an allotrope of carbon that can easily conduct electricity.
  5. Carbon is the 4th most abundant element found in the entire universe.
  6. Carbon is released from our body in the form of CO2 through exhalation.

Properties of carbon

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of carbon.

Physical properties of carbon

  • The diamond is the allotrope of carbon that has a clear appearance and it is the hardest known material on the earth.
  • The graphite is an allotrope of carbon that has a shiny black appearance.
  • The graphite is a good conductor of electricity while the diamond is a good insulator.
  • Graphite is a soft material which is used as a lubricant.
  • The diamond is a hard material which is used as an abrasive.

Chemical properties of carbon

  • The electron configuration of carbon element is [He] 2s2 2p2 and it has 4 valence electrons.
  • Carbon can form a large number of compounds through a long chain of interconnecting carbon-carbon bonds.
  • The carbon element does not react with chlorine, alkalis as well as acids like HCl and H2SO4.
  • Carbon shows a reaction with oxygen at high temperatures, and it forms carbon oxides.
  • Carbon reacts with sulfur to form carbon disulfide.
  • Metallic carbides are formed when carbon reacts with metals at high temperatures.

Uses of carbon

Here are some uses of the carbon element.

  • Carbon is alloyed with iron to form a carbon steel.
  • Graphite is added to clay in making pencil leads.
  • The charcoal is used as a drawing material in artwork.
  • The carbon is also present in wood, oil as well as coal, and these are used as fuels to produce heat.
  • It is also used in the manufacturing of brushes for electric motors.
  • Carbon black is used in printing ink (for black pigment).

External resources:

  1. Carbon – Wikipedia. (2007, December 6). Carbon – Wikipedia.
  2. Carbon – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Carbon – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  3. P. (n.d.). Carbon | C (Element) – PubChem. Carbon | C (Element) – PubChem.
  4. It’s Elemental – The Element Carbon. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Carbon.
  5. Hazen, R. M. (n.d.). Why Carbon? Scientific American Blog Network.
  6. Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory. (n.d.). Periodic Table of Elements: Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  7. Atomic Weight of Carbon | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. (n.d.). Atomic Weight of Carbon | Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights.
  8. Atomic Data for Carbon (C ). (n.d.). Atomic Data for Carbon (C ).
  9. carbon | C | ChemSpider. (n.d.). Carbon | C | ChemSpider.
  11. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  12. Emsley, J. (2011). Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. United Kingdom: OUP Oxford.
  13. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259.
  14. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451.
  15. James A. M. & Lord M. P. (1992). Macmillan’s chemical and physical data. Macmillan.
  16. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092.
  17. Allred, A. (1961, June). Electronegativity values from thermochemical data. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 17(3–4), 215–221.
  18. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  19. Zhang, Y., Evans, J. R. G., & Yang, S. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337.
  20. Possolo, A., van der Veen, A. M. H., Meija, J., & Hibbert, D. B. (2018, January 4). Interpreting and propagating the uncertainty of the standard atomic weights (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(2), 395–424.

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