Lithium (Li) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

lithium element periodic table

Lithium element (Li) is in group 1 and period 2 of a periodic table. Lithium is in the s-block and it is classified as an alkali metal on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to lithium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Lithium Element (Information Table)

The important data related to lithium element is given in the table below.

Appearance of lithiumSilvery white
Atomic number of lithium3
Symbol of lithiumLi
Atomic mass of lithium6.941 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in lithiumProtons: 3, Neutrons: 4, Electrons: 3
State of lithium (at STP)Solid
Group number of lithium in periodic table1
Period number of lithium in periodic table2
Block of lithium in periodic tables-block
Category of lithiumAlkali metals
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in lithium2, 1
Electron configuration of lithium[He] 2s1
Orbital diagram of lithiumorbital diagram of lithium
Valence electrons in lithium1
Electronegativity of lithium (on pauling scale)0.98
Atomic radius of lithium (van der Waals radius)182 picometers
Density of lithium0.534 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of lithium5.392 eV
Main isotope of lithium7Li
Melting point of lithium453.65 K or 180.5 °C or 356.9 °F
Boiling point of lithium1603 K or 1330 °C or 2426 °F
Crystal structure of lithiumBody centered cubic (BCC)
Discovery of lithiumBy John August Arfwedson in 1817

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Lithium element in Periodic table

The Lithium element (Li) has the atomic number 3 and is located in group 1 and period 2. Lithium is in solid state at STP and it is classified as an alkali metal on the periodic table.

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La* Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
*Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
**Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Facts about lithium

Here are a few interesting facts about lithium element.

  1. Lithium is lighter than water and it floats on water.
  2. Lithium is reactive to water and it catches fire when it is exposed to water. So you cannot extinguish the fire using water.
  3. Density of lithium is around half the density of water.
  4. Lithium is a reactive metal and because of this reason, it is not found in free state. It is always found in a compound form with other elements.
  5. Lithium is a soft metal and it can be cut using a knife.
  6. Lithium is generally stored in kerosene or mineral oil because of its high reactivity.
  7. The lithium metal produces crimson red color flame when it is heated.

Properties of lithium

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of lithium.

Physical properties of lithium

  • Lithium is a solid but soft metal that has a silvery white appearance.
  • The density of lithium is 0.534 g/cm3 which is the least density of all the elements that are solid at room temperature.
  • Because of the less density of lithium, it floats on water as well as other mineral oils.
  • The melting point and boiling point of lithium metal is 453.65 K and 1603 K respectively.
  • Lithium metal  is also a good conductor of heat and electricity.

Chemical properties of lithium

  • Lithium is a reactive metal and it is always found in a compound form with other elements.
  • Due to the high reactivity of lithium metal, its surface gets oxidized easily and a gray layer is formed.
  • The outermost orbit of lithium has 1 electron and it loses this electron to form a cation.
  • The reaction of lithium with water is less vigorous as compared to other alkali metals.
  • Lithium also reacts with halogens to form halides like LiF, LiCl, LiBr etc.

Uses of lithium

Here are some uses of the lithium element.

  • The most common use of lithium metal is in manufacturing of batteries that are used in electrical appliances as well as automobiles.
  • The lithium oxide is used in preparing flux that is required to reduce the melting point and viscosity of materials.
  • Lithium oxides are also used in glazing of ovenware.
  • Lithium is used in manufacturing of high temperature lubricating greases.
  • Lithium compounds are used as a flux in the sand casting process to reduce veining (veining is a casting defect that appears like a veins which is produced by a molten metal penetration into a sand casting mold). 

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