Lithium element (Li) is in group 1 and period 2 of a periodic table. Lithium is in the s-block and it is classified as an alkali metal on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to lithium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Lithium element (Information Table)
- Lithium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Lithium
- Properties of Lithium
- Uses of Lithium
Lithium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to lithium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of lithium||Silvery white|
|Atomic number of lithium||3|
|Symbol of lithium||Li|
|Atomic mass of lithium||6.941 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in lithium||Protons: 3, Neutrons: 4, Electrons: 3|
|State of lithium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of lithium in periodic table||1|
|Period number of lithium in periodic table||2|
|Block of lithium in periodic table||s-block|
|Category of lithium||Alkali metals|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in lithium||2, 1|
|Electron configuration of lithium||[He] 2s1|
|Orbital diagram of lithium|
|Valence electrons in lithium||1|
|Electronegativity of lithium (on pauling scale)||0.98|
|Atomic radius of lithium (van der Waals radius)||182 picometers|
|Density of lithium||0.534 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of lithium||5.392 eV|
|Main isotope of lithium||7Li|
|Melting point of lithium||453.65 K or 180.5 °C or 356.9 °F|
|Boiling point of lithium||1603 K or 1330 °C or 2426 °F|
|Crystal structure of lithium||Body centered cubic (BCC)|
|Discovery of lithium||By John August Arfwedson in 1817|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Lithium element in Periodic table
The Lithium element (Li) has the atomic number 3 and is located in group 1 and period 2. Lithium is in solid state at STP and it is classified as an alkali metal on the periodic table.
Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.
Facts about lithium
Here are a few interesting facts about lithium element.
- Lithium is lighter than water and it floats on water.
- Lithium is reactive to water and it catches fire when it is exposed to water. So you cannot extinguish the fire using water.
- Density of lithium is around half the density of water.
- Lithium is a reactive metal and because of this reason, it is not found in free state. It is always found in a compound form with other elements.
- Lithium is a soft metal and it can be cut using a knife.
- Lithium is generally stored in kerosene or mineral oil because of its high reactivity.
- The lithium metal produces crimson red color flame when it is heated.
Properties of lithium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of lithium.
Physical properties of lithium
- Lithium is a solid but soft metal that has a silvery white appearance.
- The density of lithium is 0.534 g/cm3 which is the least density of all the elements that are solid at room temperature.
- Because of the less density of lithium, it floats on water as well as other mineral oils.
- The melting point and boiling point of lithium metal is 453.65 K and 1603 K respectively.
- Lithium metal is also a good conductor of heat and electricity.
Chemical properties of lithium
- Lithium is a reactive metal and it is always found in a compound form with other elements.
- Due to the high reactivity of lithium metal, its surface gets oxidized easily and a gray layer is formed.
- The outermost orbit of lithium has 1 electron and it loses this electron to form a cation.
- The reaction of lithium with water is less vigorous as compared to other alkali metals.
- Lithium also reacts with halogens to form halides like LiF, LiCl, LiBr etc.
Uses of lithium
Here are some uses of the lithium element.
- The most common use of lithium metal is in manufacturing of batteries that are used in electrical appliances as well as automobiles.
- The lithium oxide is used in preparing flux that is required to reduce the melting point and viscosity of materials.
- Lithium oxides are also used in glazing of ovenware.
- Lithium is used in manufacturing of high temperature lubricating greases.
- Lithium compounds are used as a flux in the sand casting process to reduce veining (veining is a casting defect that appears like a veins which is produced by a molten metal penetration into a sand casting mold).
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