Lithium element (Li) is in group 1 and period 2 of a periodic table. Lithium is in the s-block and it is classified as an alkali metal on the periodic table.
There is a lot more information related to lithium which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.
So let’s dive right into it!
Table of contents
- Lithium element (Information Table)
- Lithium element in Periodic table
- Facts about Lithium
- Properties of Lithium
- Uses of Lithium
Lithium Element (Information Table)
The important data related to lithium element is given in the table below.
|Appearance of lithium||Silvery white|
|Atomic number of lithium||3|
|Symbol of lithium||Li|
|Atomic mass of lithium||6.941 u|
|Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in lithium||Protons: 3, Neutrons: 4, Electrons: 3|
|State of lithium (at STP)||Solid|
|Group number of lithium in periodic table||1|
|Period number of lithium in periodic table||2|
|Block of lithium in periodic table||s-block|
|Category of lithium||Alkali metals|
|Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in lithium||2, 1|
|Electron configuration of lithium||[He] 2s1|
|Orbital diagram of lithium|
|Valence electrons in lithium||1|
|Electronegativity of lithium (on pauling scale)||0.98|
|Atomic radius of lithium (van der Waals radius)||182 picometers|
|Density of lithium||0.534 g/cm3|
|1st ionization energy of lithium||5.392 eV|
|Main isotope of lithium||7Li|
|Melting point of lithium||453.65 K or 180.5 °C or 356.9 °F|
|Boiling point of lithium||1603 K or 1330 °C or 2426 °F|
|Crystal structure of lithium||Body centered cubic (BCC)|
|Discovery of lithium||By John August Arfwedson in 1817|
Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).
Lithium element in Periodic table
The Lithium element (Li) has the atomic number 3 and is located in group 1 and period 2. Lithium is in solid state at STP and it is classified as an alkali metal on the periodic table.
Facts about lithium
Here are a few interesting facts about lithium element.
- Lithium is lighter than water and it floats on water.
- Lithium is reactive to water and it catches fire when it is exposed to water. So you cannot extinguish the fire using water.
- Density of lithium is around half the density of water.
- Lithium is a reactive metal and because of this reason, it is not found in free state. It is always found in a compound form with other elements.
- Lithium is a soft metal and it can be cut using a knife.
- Lithium is generally stored in kerosene or mineral oil because of its high reactivity.
- The lithium metal produces crimson red color flame when it is heated.
Properties of lithium
Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of lithium.
Physical properties of lithium
- Lithium is a solid but soft metal that has a silvery white appearance.
- The density of lithium is 0.534 g/cm3 which is the least density of all the elements that are solid at room temperature.
- Because of the less density of lithium, it floats on water as well as other mineral oils.
- The melting point and boiling point of lithium metal is 453.65 K and 1603 K respectively.
- Lithium metal is also a good conductor of heat and electricity.
Chemical properties of lithium
- Lithium is a reactive metal and it is always found in a compound form with other elements.
- Due to the high reactivity of lithium metal, its surface gets oxidized easily and a gray layer is formed.
- The outermost orbit of lithium has 1 electron and it loses this electron to form a cation.
- The reaction of lithium with water is less vigorous as compared to other alkali metals.
- Lithium also reacts with halogens to form halides like LiF, LiCl, LiBr etc.
Uses of lithium
Here are some uses of the lithium element.
- The most common use of lithium metal is in manufacturing of batteries that are used in electrical appliances as well as automobiles.
- The lithium oxide is used in preparing flux that is required to reduce the melting point and viscosity of materials.
- Lithium oxides are also used in glazing of ovenware.
- Lithium is used in manufacturing of high temperature lubricating greases.
- Lithium compounds are used as a flux in the sand casting process to reduce veining (veining is a casting defect that appears like a veins which is produced by a molten metal penetration into a sand casting mold).