Mercury (Hg) – Periodic Table [Element Information & More]

mercury element periodic table

Mercury element (Hg) is in group 12 and period 6 of a periodic table. Mercury is in the d-block and it is classified as a post-transition element on the periodic table.

There is a lot more information related to mercury which is mentioned in the Information Table given below.

So let’s dive right into it!

Table of contents

Mercury Element (Information Table)

The important data related to mercury element is given in the table below.

Appearance of mercuryShiny liquid
Atomic number of mercury80
Symbol of mercuryHg
Atomic mass of mercury200.59 u
Protons, Neutrons & Electrons in mercuryProtons: 80, Neutrons: 121, Electrons: 80
State of mercury (at STP)Liquid
Group number of mercury in periodic table12
Period number of mercury in periodic table6
Block of mercury in periodic tabled-block
Category of mercuryPost-transition metal
Bohr model or Electrons per shell or Electrons arrangement in mercury2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Electron configuration of mercury[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Orbital diagram of mercuryorbital diagram of mercury
Electronegativity of mercury (on pauling scale)2
Atomic radius of mercury (van der Waals radius)209 picometers
Density of mercury13.535 g/cm3
1st ionization energy of mercury10.438 eV
Main isotope of mercury202Hg
Melting point of mercury234.3 K or -38.8 °C or -37.8 °F
Boiling point of mercury629.8 K or 356.7 °C or 674.1 °F
Crystal structure of mercuryRhombohedral

Also see: Interactive Periodic Table (It has rotating bohr models as well as many other details of all the 118 elements in a single periodic table).

Mercury element in Periodic table

The Mercury element (Hg) has the atomic number 80 and is located in group 12 and period 6. Mercury is a liquid metal at STP and it is classified as a post-transition element.

Click on above elements in the periodic table to see their information.

Facts about mercury

Here are a few interesting facts about the mercury element.

  1. Mercury is a metal that is in liquid state at room temperature and pressure.
  2. Mercury is the 67th most common element present in the earth’s crust.
  3. Earth’s crust contains mercury in the concentration of only 80 parts per billion by weight.
  4. Mercury is largely produced in Spain and Italy.
  5. Mercury is toxic metal and it should not be touched with bare hands.
  6. Mercury is a dense liquid metal and it is 13.5 times heavier than water.

Properties of mercury

Here is a list of some physical properties and chemical properties of mercury.

Physical properties of mercury

  • Mercury has a shiny metallic appearance and it is in liquid state at room temperature and pressure.
  • Mercury forms small hemispherical droplets when it is spilled on the surface.
  • Mercury has a rhombohedral crystal structure.
  • The melting point and boiling point of mercury is 234.3 K and 629.8 K respectively.
  • Mercury has many isotopes, and out of those isotopes the most abundant isotope is 202Hg.

Chemical properties of mercury

  • Mercury is a toxic metal and it can damage our kidneys, levers, nerves, etc.
  • Mercury can form amalgams with silver, tin and gold.
  • If mercury is kept open in the moist air, then it will form an oxide layer on it.
  • Mercury easily reacts with aluminum metal and it forms an oxide layer on aluminum. So mercury is not allowed in airplanes.
  • Mercury does not show chemical reactions with iron, so it is generally stored in iron containers.

Uses of mercury

Here are some uses of the mercury element.

  • Mercury is generally used in temperature measuring apparatus like thermometers.
  • Mercury is also used in devices like barometers, manometers, etc which measures pressure.
  • Mercury is also used to extract silver and gold from their ores. Because mercury can easily amalgamate (form alloy) with these metals.

External resources:

  1. Mercury (element) – Wikipedia. (2015, February 18). Mercury (Element) – Wikipedia.
  2. Prohaska, T., et al. (2022, May 1). Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 94(5), 573–600.
  3. Haynes, W. M. (Ed.). (2014, June 4). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
  4. Kaye, G W.C., & Laby, T H. Tables of physical and chemical constants. 15th Edition. United States.
  5. Sansonetti, J. E., & Martin, W. C. (2005, December). Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 34(4), 1559–2259.
  6. Mercury – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Mercury – Element Information, Properties and Uses | Periodic Table.
  7. Basic Information about Mercury | US EPA. (2015, August 20). US EPA.
  8. It’s Elemental – The Element Mercury. (n.d.). It’s Elemental – the Element Mercury.
  9. P. (n.d.). Mercury | Hg (Element) – PubChem. Mercury | Hg (Element) – PubChem.
  11. Mercury. (n.d.). Mercury.
  12. Bondi, A. (1964, March). van der Waals Volumes and Radii. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 68(3), 441–451.
  13. Holden, et al. (2018, December 1). IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements and Isotopes (IPTEI) for the Education Community (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 90(12), 1833–2092.
  14. Zhang, et al. (2011, January 11). Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56(2), 328–337.
  15. Boudreaux, K. A. (n.d.). Molecule Gallery – Alkenes. Molecule Gallery – Alkenes.
  16. Mercury: Element of the Ancients | Dartmouth Toxic Metals. (n.d.). Mercury: Element of the Ancients | Dartmouth Toxic Metals.

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